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Description of key information

- epidemiological data: no clear, statistically significant association between exposure to titanium tetrachloride or titanium dioxide and the risk of developing lung cancer or respiratory disease; Cohort or nested case-control analysis of four health outcomes: lung cancer incidence; lung cancer deaths; chronic respiratory disease; chest X-ray abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis among workers exposed to titanium dioxide and/or titanium tetrachloride; KEY Epidemiological data 7.10.2.001 Chen 1987

Additional information

A cohort or nested case-control analysis of four health outcomes (lung cancer incidence; lung cancer deaths; chronic respiratory disease; chest X-ray abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis) ) was conducted on 2477 workers exposed to titanium dioxide and/or titanium tetrachloride. Study period was 1935-1983 (cohorts for mortality) or 1956-1985 (cohorts for cancers and chronic respiratory disease incidence).

Confounding factors are the potential for exposure to other chemicals, the overlap of TiCl4 and TiO2 exposure groups and the lack of details on, or control for, cigarette smoking.

The result of the study was that no clear, statistically significant association was seen between exposure to titanium tetrachloride or titanium dioxide and the risk of developing lung cancer or respiratory disease.