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EC number: 265-191-7
CAS number: 64742-88-7
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of crude oil or natural gasoline. It consists predominantly of saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C12 and boiling in the range of approximately 140°C to 220°C (284°F to 428°F).
The weight of evidence
from in vitro and in vivo mutagenic studies indicates that kerosine and
jet fuels are likely not mutagens.
vitro gene mutation studies in bacteria
number of standard tests, with and without metabolic activation by
inclusion of rat liver S9, were conducted on straight-run kerosines,
deodorised kerosine and Jet A. A rather wide variety of tester strains,
both of prokaryotic species (Salmonella typhimurium) and
eukaryotic species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), were used, and
also various solvents were applied to dissolve the test product. In a
study by the American Petroleum Institute (1977) (Klimisch score = 1),
strains of S. typhimurium (TA-1535,
TA-1537, TA-1538, TA-98 and TA-100) and S. cerevisiae (D4) were
exposed to kerosine in DMSO with or without metabolic activation by
Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes at dose concentrations from
0.001 to 5.0 μL/plate. Results
were invariably negative; however, they must be regarded with caution
since the standard Ames test is considered to be inappropriate for
testing the mutagenicity of water insoluble petroleum products. Blackburn
and colleagues (1986) modified the standard assay in order to evaluate
the mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high boiling petroleum
derived substances, namely unrefined lubricant base oils. The
modified assay can be used as a screening tool for other petroleum
products, however the results should be evaluated carefully since the
assay has only been validated for other lubricant base oils. In a
modified assay (Klimisch score = 1; CONCAWE Butler, 1991),S.
typhimurium were exposed to straight-run kerosines and hydrotreated
kerosines dissolved in DMSO at concentrations of 50 μL/mL. Substances
were considered positive if they showed a mutagenicity index (MI)
greater than 1.0. Data
from CONCAWE show negative results for both straight-run and
hydrodesulfurised kerosine. Data from Blackburn et al show negative
results for hydrotreated kerosine, but positive results (MI values of
1.7 and 2.9) for straight run kerosine. These last results are not only
rather unexpected but also difficult to interpret since no actual data
were given in the original publication.
vitrogene mutation in mammalian cells
in vitro gene mutation studies in mammalian cells were
identified. In a study by the American Petroleum Institute (API, 1984b),
cultures of mouse lymphoma cells were exposed to hydrodesulfurised
kerosine with or without metabolic activation by Aroclor 1254-induced
rat liver S9 fraction. Under non-activation conditions the test material
induced a good range of toxicities for evaluation (relative growths
ranged from 2.8% to 65.3%). None of the assays induced a mutant
frequency that exceeded the minimum criterion (40.8 x 10-6). The test
material was not mutagenic under non-activation conditions. In the
presence of metabolic activation a wide range of toxicities was induced
(6.1 to 107.9% relative growths). The minimum criterion mutant frequency
of 69.0 x 10-6 was not exceeded. The test material was therefore
considered non mutagenic under activation conditions. In a study by API
(1977) (Klimisch score = 1), mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were exposed to
straight-run kerosine in acetone vehicle at concentrations ranging from
0.04 to 0.065 μL/mL (with metabolic activation) or 0.006 to 0.13 μL/mL
(without activation). There was no evidence that straight-run kerosine
induced mutant colonies over background levels.
vitro cytogenicity in mammalian cells
kerosine was tested in the sister chromatid exchange assay using Chinese
hamster ovary cells (API, 1988a). The assay was conducted with
Aroclor-induced rat liver S-9 activation system. A small but
statistically significant increase in the frequency of sister chromatid
exchanges was observed at the high and low concentrations with metabolic
increases appeared to be random and of no biological significance. There
were no significant increases observed at any concentration in the
absence of metabolic activation. Under the conditions of the study,
hydrodesulfurised kerosine is considered to be negative in the sister
chromatid exchange assay with Chinese hamster ovary cells.
on weight of evidence kerosine substances were found to be non mutagenic
through cytogenic investigations: one mouse sister chromatid exchange
study and six rat bone marrow micronucleus assays. In
the mouse sister chromatid exchange assay (Klimisch score = 1)
hydrodesulfurised kerosine (API, 1988b) was administered to mice and
considered positive for genotoxicity. Although
the test is considered valid, the following remarks can be made. Regarding
the SCE assay with hydrodesulfurised kerosine no statistically
significant effect was observed in the female mice, whereas the female
mice responded positively to administration of both cyclophosphamide (10
mg/kg) and a carcinogenic heavy fuel oil (4000 mg/kg) which were used as
positive control. Furthermore,
the doses of the hydrodesulfurised kerosine were rather high (400, 2000,
and 40000 mg/kg) and the males in the highest dose groups showed signs
of toxicity (lethargy and weight loss) on the day of the administration
of the kerosine and the day after (when they were sacrificed).
a rat bone marrow micronucleus assay (API, 1985c, Klimisch score = 1),
straight run kerosine (CAS# 800-20-6) was administered to Sprague Dawley
rats. Straight run kerosine was not considered to induce chromosomal
aberrations in bone marrow cells of rats. In another bone marrow
micronucleus assay (API, 1984b, Klimisch score = 1), hydrodesulfurised
kerosine (CAS# 64742-81-0) was administered to rats. No clinical signs
of toxicity were exhibited by the rats, and there was no significant
increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in
bone marrow as compared to control. In a study by API (1977) (Klimisch
score = 1), straight-run kerosine (CAS# 8008-20-6) was administered to
45 male rats. No significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated
polychromatic erythrocytes was observed.
vivo gene mutation
in vivo gene mutation studies were identified. In a sperm cell
dominant lethal mutation assay (API, 1980b, Klimisch score = 1), Jet
Fuel A was administered via inhalation route to male mice at
concentrations of 100 or 400 ppm for a 6-hour exposure period, 5 days
per week for 8 weeks. Males were mated with females, and the uteri of
pregnant females were examined for living and dead implants. Jet Fuel A
did not increase the incidence of post-implantation deaths. In another
study by API (1973) (Klimisch score = 1), deodorised kerosine was
administered subcutaneously to 10 male Swiss-Webster mice in corn oil
vehicle or intraperitoneally to 10 Long-Evans rats undiluted at a dose
of 1.0 mL/kg. Males were mated with females, and no pattern of decreased
pregnancy rate or increased embryo loss was observed in the females.
were no studies located that described mutagenic or genotoxic effects of
kerosine or jet fuels in humans. The weight of evidence from in vitro
and in vivo mutagenic studies indicates that kerosine and jet fuels are
likely not mutagens.
in vivo cytogenicity testing produced some contradictory results
in that for hydrodesulfurised kerosine negative results were obtained in
rats and female mice, but positive results were obtained in male mice.
Although these studies were done under GLP and should be considered as
valid, the male mice in the hydrodesulfurised kerosine study suffered a
significant body weight loss compared to both the positive and negative
controls. The loss of body weight must be seen as a general indicator of
toxicity, which may have impacted the study. Taking into account that
the great majority of the studies were negative and that the data on
various individual components of kerosines and jet fuels were negative,
the overall conclusion is that kerosines and jet fuels are not mutagenic
data support that kerosines are not mutagens (Blackburn
et al., 1984; API, 1985d; CONCAWE, 1991).
This information is presented in the dossier.
were no studies located that described mutagenic or genotoxic effects of
kerosine or jet fuels in humans. Because
most studies were negative and the data on various individual components
of kerosines and jet fuels were negative, the
weight of evidence from in vitro and in vivo mutagenic studies indicates
that kerosine and jet fuels are likely not mutagens andare
not classified as mutagens under the EU
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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