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EC number: 265-191-7
CAS number: 64742-88-7
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of crude oil or natural gasoline. It consists predominantly of saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C12 and boiling in the range of approximately 140°C to 220°C (284°F to 428°F).
A number of subacute and subchronic studies with kerosines and jet fuels are available (OECD 410, 412, 413, and other non-guideline protocols). The repeated inhalation and oral studies of kerosine in rats produced no consistent toxicological effects other than changes in male rat kidneys that are not considered relevant to humans. The NOAEC for inhalation exposure is greater than or equal to 1000 mg/m3 (vapour). The systemic dermal NOAEL is greater than or equal to 0.5 mL/kg/day (400 mg/kg bw/day). The NOAEL for systemic effects of oral exposure is 750 mg/kg/day.
number of subacute and subchronic studies with kerosines and jet fuels
are available. The repeated inhalation and oral studies of kerosine in
rats produced no consistent toxicological effects other than changes in
male rat kidneys that are not considered relevant to humans. The
male-rat specific nephropathy, evident at exposures from 500 mg/m3(inhalation),
or 750 mg/kg/day (oral gavage) is not taken into account for risk
assessment purposes. The nephropathy in inhalation studies coincided
with a decreased bodyweight gain in male rats. No other signs of
toxicity were observed. The
NOAEC for inhalation exposure is greater than or equal to 1000 mg/m3
systemic dermal NOAEL is greater than or equal to 0.5 mL/kg/day (400
mg/kg bw/day). The
NOAEL for systemic effects of oral exposure is 750 mg/kg/day.
the key oral subchronic study (Klimisch score=1; Mattie et al., 2000),
male rats were treated for 70 to 90 days with 0 (1mL of distilled
water), 750, 1500, or 3000 mg/kg/day of undiluted JP-8 jet fuel, then
mated to untreated females (one female at a time). Males were gavaged
throughout the cohabitation period and were returned to their individual
cage after successful mating. In the second part of the study, female
rats were administered the test compound at doses of 0 (1mL of distilled
water), 375, 750, or 1500 mg/kg/day undiluted JP-8 jet fuel for 90-day
prior to mating, through mating, gestation, delivery, and lactation for
a total of 21 week. During mating, they were housed with untreated
were no effects on clinical signs or mortality in either sex.
Haematology, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis were measured only in
females without any effects noted. Body weights in male rats were
decreased in a dose-dependent manner and was likely related to
nephropathy, which is specific in male rats treated with hydrocarbons,
and not relevant for human exposure. In females, body weight was only
significantly reduced in the high-dose group. Absolute and relative
liver weights were increased in mid- and high-dose females, but were not
likely biologically significant due to the lack of changes in clinical
chemistry or histopathology in the liver. The test compound caused
perianal dermatitis (high-dose only) and stomach hyperplasia (mid- and
high-dose) in the female rats. There was a dose-related decrease in pup
weight that was significant in the 750 mg/kg/day group on postnatal day
4 only and in the 1500 mg/kg/day group from postnatal day 4 through
postnatal day 21 but had recovered by postnatal day 90. There were no
treatment-related effects on reproduction or sperm parameters in males.
There were no effects on reproduction, gestation, or litter size in
study LOAEL for systemic effects is 1500 mg/kg/day and the NOAEL for
systemic effects is 750 mg/kg/day, based on reduced body weight in dams
and in pups. The LOAEL for adult males rats exposed to JP-8 orally was
750 mg/kg/day due to changes in clinical pathology, body weight, organ
weights and the same irritation seen in female rats. The decrease in
male rat bodyweight is very likely due to the male rat-specific
nephropathy and is therefore not taken into account for the derivation
of the oral NOAEL. The reproduction NOAEL was 3000 and 1500 mg/kg/day in
males and females, respectively.
a key subacute inhalation toxicity study (Klimisch score = 1; API,
1986), hydrodesulfurised kerosine vapour was administered to 20
Sprague-Dawley rats/sex/concentration by dynamic whole body exposure at
a concentration of 24 mg/m3(0.024 mg/L) for 6 hours per day,
5 days/week for 4 weeks. There were no compound related effects in
mortality, clinical signs, body weight, haematology, clinical chemistry,
organ weights, or gross and histologic pathology. Therefore, the NOAEC
is greater than or equal to 24 mg/m3. This
was the highest dose tested in the study.
the key subchronic inhalation toxicity study (Klimisch score=1; Mattie
et al., 1991), JP-8 jet fuel was administered to 95 male Fisher 344
rats, 75 female Fischer 344 rats, and 100 male and female C57BL/6 mice
by dynamic whole body vapour exposure at concentrations of 0, 500 or
1000 mg/m3(0, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/L) as a vapour for 24 hours per
day, 7 days/week for a total of 90 days. The male rats developed
hydrocarbon-induced nephropathy at both treatment concentrations. Male
rats had decreased body weight and decreased absolute and relative
kidney weight at both treatment concentrations. Female rats were
unaffected by treatment. In
mice, no significant clinical signs of toxicity were noted that
differentiated the groups that were treatment-related. The
NOAEC for male rats is difficult to establish, since potential adverse
effects may be masked by male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy.
However, based on the hydrocarbon-induced nephropathy and reduced body
weights and increased kidney weights, the LOAEC in male rats is 500 mg/m3. The
LOEC for male mice is also 500 mg/m3, but it was not
treatment related. The NOAEC for female rats and mice is greater than or
equal to 1000 mg/m3. This was the highest dose tested in the
the key short-term dermal toxicity study (Klimisch = 1; ARCO, 1992v),
thermocracked kerosine was applied to the shaved skin of 10
Sprague-Dawley rats/sex/dose at dose levels of 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.5
mL/kg bw/day, 6 hours/day for 5 days/week during a 28-day period. The
test compound irritated the skin in a dose-dependent manner. In the
high-dose group, the irritation became severe so the application site
was moved to a cephalad location at the beginning of the fourth
week. There were no compound related effects in mortality, clinical
signs, body weight, haematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, or
gross and histologic pathology (except the skin). The LOAEL for dermal
irritation is 0.01 mL/kg/day, based on slight to severe dermal
irritation occurring at all doses tested. No dermal irritation NOAEL was
established. There was no systemic LOAEL, based on the lack of systemic
effects. The systemic NOAEL is greater than or equal to 0.5 mL/kg/day. This
was the highest dose tested in the study.
supporting short-term dermal studies (ARCO, 1993; ARCO, 1992w; ARCO,
1992x;), groups of male and female young adult Sprague-Dawley rats were
administered undiluted straight run kerosine at doses of 0.01, 0.10 or
1.0 mL/kg bw/day (ARCO, 1993), Jet Fuel A1 at doses of 0.01, 0.05 or
0.25 mL/kg bw/day (ARCO, 1992), straight run kerosine at doses of 0.01,
0.25 or 0.5 mL/kg bw/day (ARCO, 1992x), or kerosine/heating oil, Jet
Fuel A, Cherry Point Jet Fuel, and JP-5 at doses of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0
mL/kg/day (ARCO, 1987j; ARCO, 1987k; ARCO, 1987l; ARCO, 1987m). The
test material was applied to the previously shorn skin and was occluded
for a 6 hour period five days a week for four weeks. There were no
mortalities during the studies. Skin irritation ranged from slight to
severe and was typically dose-related. The systemic NOAELs ranged from
0.25 to 2.0 mL/kg/day. The LOAELs for dermal irritation ranged from 0.01
to 0.5 mL/kg/day.
another supporting short-term dermal study (API, 1985b), undiluted test
material straight run kerosine was applied to the shorn dorsal skin of
each of five male and five female rabbits at doses of 200, 1000 and
2000 mg/kg/day, three times weekly until 12 doses had been
applied. Five rabbits of each sex served as sham treated
controls. Dosing was carried out on alternate days. The
test compound caused skin irritation at all doses with effects of body
weight, organ weight, haematology, and histopathology likely secondary
to the dermal irritation. Therefore, the LOAEL is 200 mg/kg/day.
NOAEC for inhalation exposure of greater than or equal to 1000 mg/m3(vapour)
was established. Considering an average breathing rate for female rats
of 0.182 m3/day and the average female rat bodyweight of
0.258 kg, the NOAEC of greater than or equal to 1000 mg/m3corresponds
with a calculated NOAEL of greater than or equal to 705 mg/kg/day. This
is well in agreement with the experimentally determined oral NOAEL of
750 mg/kg/day for female rats. The repeat dose toxicity of kerosine is
not classified using EU
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
data support that kerosines are not classified as harmful to health
after prolonged exposure (inhalation:Carpenter
et al., 1976; Shell, 1979; dermal: API,
1980a; API, 1983b; Freeman et al., 1990; CONCAWE, 1991; CONCAWE 1993;
Batelle, 1997). This information is
presented in the dossier.
the lack of adverse systemic effects even with the highest doses
administered, kerosines are not classified under the EU
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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