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EC number: 265-191-7
CAS number: 64742-88-7
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of crude oil or natural gasoline. It consists predominantly of saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C12 and boiling in the range of approximately 140°C to 220°C (284°F to 428°F).
The studies of the
pharmacokinetics (i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion) of kerosine are scarce. There are some in vitro and in
vivo studies available on jet fuels. However, since jet fuel is a
complex mixture, these studies use certain constituents of jet fuels as
marker compounds to describe the total jet fuel pharmacokinetics. There
are more data available for a number of kerosine constituents, and these
can be used as a basis for understanding the pharmacokinetics of
kerosine as a whole. There
are three ways in which humans are exposed to kerosine: by inhalation;
ingestion; and dermal contact. Due to the relatively low volatility of
kerosine and jet fuels, dermal exposure can be a more important route of
exposure than exposure via inhalation. During many operations involving
aircraft fuel tanks there is a significant potential for dermal
exposure. Ingestion occurs primarily as a consequence of accident.
five male C3H mice were dosed with a single dermal application of 15 or
60 μL kerosine (30% straight-run hydrotreated and 70% hydrocracked
kerosine) spiked with radiolabelled naphthalene or tetradecane, and
sacrificed after 96 h exposure (Mobil, 1994). Another group of five male
C3H mice were exposed by air to the same compounds and doses in a
metabolism cage to determine passive inhalation. The results of the
dermal exposure show that 5% of the labelled tetradecane and 15% of the
labelled naphthalene was absorbed over 96 h. The inhalation experiments
showed that 2.8% of the labelled naphthalene was bioavailable.
Comparison of these data with a similar dataset obtained with a 25%
concentration of the test compounds diluted in mineral oil, revealed
that dilution did not affect the absorption of the test compound.
groups of eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1, 4, 4,or 16
mL kerosine through the abdominal skin for 2 h at a skin area of 4, 4,
16 or 64 cm2, respectively (Tsujino et al., 2003).
Before, during and after the experiment, blood samples were taken and
analysed for trimethylbenzenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Trimethylbenzenes were detectable in blood within 5-20 min and showed a
dose dependent absorption. High concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons
were detected in the exposed skin as compared to the blood concentration
and the aliphatic hydrocarbon levels were dependent on the amount of
kerosine exposed per unit area.
distribution of kerosine components in the blood and tissues of rats
following in vitro dermal exposures was investigated, using
trimethylbenzenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons (C9-C16) as biomarkers
(Tsujinoet al., 2002). The trimethylbenzenes were absorbed
through the skin and detected in blood and tissues to a greater extent
as compared to the aliphatics. The data indicate that kerosine
components are absorbed percutaneously and distributed to the various
organs via the blood circulation. Distribution of trimethylbenzenes in
blood and tissues following dermal exposure is (at decreasing
concentrations): kidney > blood > liver > adipose > brain > spleen >
lung = muscle. Distribution of aliphatics in blood and tissues following
dermal exposure is (at decreasing concentrations): blood > adipose >
muscle > lung > liver > kidney > spleen > brain.
The inhalation studies
demonstrate that the volatile kerosine constituents are well absorbed
(31 – 54%) and are distributed mainly in the fat tissue. Aromatics were
metabolised at a higher rate than naphthenes, n-alkanes, isoalkanes and
1-alkenes. Dermal application of kerosine or jet fuel generally shows
that the aromatics and aliphatics are well absorbed into the skin.
Subsequently, the aromatics penetrate the skin at a higher rate than the
alkanes. SKINPERM calculations indicate that although skin permeation
rates of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics are more or less comparable,
the latency times of alkanes are longer than the latency times of
naphthenes and aromatics. After absorption, the kerosine constituents
are distributed via the blood circulation to the fat tissue and various
organs. Studies with oral exposure to kerosine indicate that
gastrointestinal absorption of kerosine is slow and incomplete,
resulting in low bioavailability.
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