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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
100 mg/kg food

Additional information

In the VRAL (LDAI, 2008) 12 feeding studies with birds (7 bounded NOECs) have been selected. An update of that database was made with 2 additional studies for birds (1 bounded NOEC). Sub-chronic and chronic studies for 4 different bird species were collected from literature, ie for Gallus domesticus, Gallus sp., Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite quail) and Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail). For birds oral toxicity the values varied between 100 and 2000 mg/kg ww. The lowest value of 100 mg Pb/kg ww was used to derive the PNEC, which was observed in several experiments with Japanese quails after 12 weeks. According to the guidance, the PNECoral was calculated from the lowest NOECoral using an assesment factor.

An assessment factor of 6 has been selected on the lowest toxicity data. Considering a background concentration of 1.3 mg Pb/kg in the food, the PNECoral can be calculated as: PNECoral = (NOEC +Cb)/AF = (100+1.3)/6 = 16.9 mg/kg food (birds).