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EC number: 404-950-0
CAS number: 21369-64-2
The purpose of this study was to evaluate
the chronic toxicity of the test item lithium hydroxide monohydrate to
early life stages (embryo, larvae and juveniles) of fish.
For this purpose, eggs were exposed in a
semi static test to aqueous test media containing the test item for 34
days at a range of concentrations under defined conditions. Lethal and
sub-lethal effects were assessed and compared with control values to
determine the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) and hence the
no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for each response assessed.
The test was considered to be valid as assay
acceptance criteria were fulfilled.
Based on the preliminary chronic fish
toxicity test result the following nominal test concentrations were
selected for the early life stage toxicity test: 1.8 mg/L, 3.0 mg/L, 7.2
mg/L, 15.0 mg/L and 21.1 mg/L.
Test item concentrations were analyzed in
the test solutions by flame photometry. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate
concentration in the test solutions was determined at 5 renewal periods
by flame photometry. The measured concentrations of the lithium
hydroxide monohydrate varied between 102 % and 151 % of the nominal
concentration during the test. Mean measured concentrations were
calculated for each parallel test chambers and for each treatment
concentrations. The measured concentrations of each parallel treatment
were within the range of ± 20 % of the mean measured values meeting the
validity criteria. Since concentrations of the test substance were
satisfactorily maintained within ± 20 % of the mean measured values
during the test in all treatment groups, all biological results are
reported on the basis of the mean measured concentrations: 2.43 mg/L,
3.82 mg/L, 8.60 mg/L, 17.35 mg/L and 24.35 mg/L.
Seventy nine to eighty two eggs were tested
per test concentrations and the control in two parallels in the test
groups and in the control group (approximately 40-40 eggs per each
parallel treatments). Based on microscopic observation embryos were at
approximately 64 to 128 cell stages at start of treatment.
Environmental parameters (water temperature,
pH, LDO) were monitored during the test. There were no deviations from
the defined ranges.
Animals were fed from elimination of the
yolk sac (free-feeding stage) to the end of the test with appropriate
type and amount of food ad libitum, and thus starvation did not have any
effect on the results obtained.
Cumulative mortality (observed from Day 0 to
the end of the test on Day 34), mortality observed at
embryonic/eleutheroembryonic (i.e. early larval) stage (from Day 0 to
the end of hatching on Day 5) and mortality observed at larval/juvenile
stage (from Day 6 - free feeding stage - to the end of the test on Day
34) were statistically evaluated. Statistically significant (p < 0.01)
cumulative mortality compared to the control was observed at treatment
concentration of 24.35 mg/L (21.1 mg/L nominal). No significant lethal
effect was observed until embryonic/eleutheroembryonic stage. Since
mortality observed from Day 6 to Day 34 was statistically significant (p
< 0.01) it is considered that the test item influenced the survival of
the test organism at larval/juvenile stage rather than at embryonic
stage. No statistically significant lethal effect was observed in other
test concentrations (neither during embryonic nor larval/juvenile
No significant effect on hatching of the
larvae was observed at any concentrations tested. No significant
differences were observed either in starting or duration of hatching.
Numbers of larvae hatched daily were statistically evaluated on Day 4
and Day 5 and no significant differences were observed.
At the end of the test, group body weights
were measured. No significant differences were observed.
Body length was measured for each animal
individually and the data were statistically evaluated. Statistically
significant (p < 0.05), but biologically not relevant difference was
observed at test concentration of 8.61 mg/L (7.2 mg/L nominal).
Other sub-lethal effects were monitored with
limited extent: numbers of embryos/larvae/juveniles with deformities or
abnormal behavior were recorded. No obvious test item related changes in
the behavior of fish could be observed.
Under the conditions of this early life
stage toxicity study, the test item Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate had
significant lethal effect on early life stages of Zebrafish (Danio
rerio). The observed effect was associated with larval/juvenile stages,
but no significant effect was observed during the embryonic stage.
The following endpoints (34 days LOEC and
NOEC) were calculated in the study:
The 34 d LOEC 24.35 mg test item/L
The 34 d NOEC 17.35 mg test item/L
Based on read across approach, the
calculated LOEC and NOEC values for n-Hexyl lithium were 53 and 38 mg/L
The NOEC result does not lead to
classification and labelling of n-Hexyl lithium for long-term aquatic
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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