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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
data is from peer reviewed journals

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
THE OCULAR EFFECT OF SEVERAL IRRITANT DRUGS APPLIED DIRECTLY TO THE CONJUNCTIVA
Author:
JOSE J. ESTABLE
Year:
1948
Bibliographic source:
American Journal of Ophthalmology; Volume 31, Issue 7, July 1948, Pages 837-844

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: as mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
To compare the immediate and delayed effects of 9,10–anthraquinone (CAS No: 84-65-1) on the cornea—a tissue normally devoid of blood vessels with their effects on the vascular tissues of the sclera and eyelids
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid
Details on test material:
Name of the test chemical: 9,10–anthraquinone
Molecular Formula: C14H8O2
Molecular Weight:208.215 g/mol
Substance Type: Organic
Physical State: Solid
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Name of the test chemical: 9,10–anthraquinone
Molecular Formula: C14H8O2
Molecular Weight:208.215 g/mol
Substance Type: Organic
Physical State: Solid

Test animals / tissue source

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
other: White rabbits
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
no data available

Test system

Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
yes
Amount / concentration applied:
100% undiluted powder
Duration of treatment / exposure:
one-half minute.
Observation period (in vivo):
one day to several days
Duration of post- treatment incubation (in vitro):
no data available
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
no data available
Details on study design:
TEST SITE
Area of exposure: lower conjunctival sac of one eye.
SCORING SYSTEM: The eyes were examined for evidence of inflammation, and changes in the corneal structures were observed with the bio-microscope

Results and discussion

Other effects / acceptance of results:
no data available
Results of in vivo study
Irritation parameter:
overall irritation score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
other: not specified
Score:
0
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: few hours
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Anthraquinone produced only immediate sensory and inflammatory reaction (discomfort, blepharospasm, and conjunctival congestion) that disappeared very soon. The eyes appeared normal in a few hours.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: not irritating
Conclusions:
Anthraquinone (CAS No: 84-65-1) produced only immediate sensory and inflammatory reaction (discomfort, blepharospasm, and conjunctival congestion) that disappeared very soon. The eyes appeared normal in a few hours.
Hence, it was concluded the irritation effects were due to mechanical action of the powder rather than toxic effects of anthraquinone. Therefore, Anthraquinone (CAS No: 84-65-1) can be considered not irritating to eyes.

Executive summary:

An eye irritation study was performed to compare the immediate and delayed effects of 9,10–anthraquinone (CAS No: 84-65-1) on the cornea—a tissue normally devoid of blood vessels with their effects on the vascular tissues of the sclera and eyelids. 

White rabbits were used for the study. Anthraquinone(dry powder)was placed in the lower conjunctival sac of one eye and held there usually for one-half minute. This was repeated at intervals of one or several days.The other eye was treated with 0.7% solution of Sodium chloride and used as control.The eyes were examined for evidence of inflammation, and changes in the corneal structures were observed with the bio-microscope. 

Anthraquinone produced only immediate sensory and inflammatory reaction (discomfort, blepharospasm, and conjunctival congestion) that disappeared very soon. The eyes appeared normal in a few hours. Hence, it was concluded the irritation effects were due to mechanical action of the powder rather than toxic effects of anthraquinone. Therefore, Anthraquinone (CAS No: 84-65-1) can be considered not irritating to eyes.