Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Biodegradation in water

Biodegradability of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (CAS no. 15958 -68 -6) is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 (2017) with logKow as the primary descriptor. Test substance undergoes 0.86% degradation by BOD in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 1,5 -bis(cyclohexyl amino)-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 1,5 -bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione (CAS No. 15958 -68 -6). If released in to the environment, 8.61% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione in water is estimated to be 60 days (1440 hrs). The half-life (60 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to high whereas the half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione in sediment is estimated to be 541.66 days (13000 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.217%), indicates that 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (CAS No. 15958 -68 -6) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 91.2% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione in soil is estimated to be 120 days (2880 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various predicted data for the target compound 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione(CAS No. 15958-68-6) and supporting weight of evidence studies for its closest read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with logKow as the primary descriptor, percentage biodegradability of test chemical1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione(CAS No. 15958-68-6) was estimated.Test substance undergoes 0.86% degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 1,5 -bis(cyclohexyl amino)-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione(CAS No. 15958-68-6) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 1,5 -bis(cyclohexyl amino)-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, HSDB, SRC (Syracuse Research Corporation) PhysProp 2017 and Envichem, 2014) for the read across chemical 2-amino-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (CAS no. 117-79-3), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2 -amino-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 25°C and pH of 7.0, respectively. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 2 -amino-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione was determined to be 1 and 3% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 2 -amino-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the read across chemical 1-hydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (CAS no. 129-43-1), biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1-hydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (J-CHECK, HSDB, SRC (Syracuse Research Corporation) PhysProp database, 2017). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 25°C and pH of 7.0, respectively. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 1 -hydroxy-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione was determined to be 2 and 1% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1 -hydroxy-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017) and secondary source (OECD SIDS, 1996) was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance sodium 1-amino-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (CAS no. 82-45-1). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301C “Ready biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)” under aerobic conditions. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 1-amino-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione was determined to be 0 and 2% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-amino-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione(from OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK, HSDB, SRC (Syracuse Research Corporation) PhysProp and secondary source OECD SIDS), it can be concluded that the test substance1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dionecan be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 1,5 -bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10 -dihydroanthracene-9,10 -dione (CAS No. 15958 -68 -6). If released in to the environment, 8.61% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione in water is estimated to be 60 days (1440 hrs). The half-life (60 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to high whereas the half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione in sediment is estimated to be 541.66 days (13000 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.217%), indicates that 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione (CAS No. 15958 -68 -6) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 91.2% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione in soil is estimated to be 120 days (2880 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance1,5-bis(cyclohexylamino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dionecan be considered to be notreadily biodegradable in nature.