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Biodegradation in water

The predicted data for the test compoundTris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium(CAS No. 68475-50-3) and the study for its read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

Biodegradation in water ability was predicted (SSS QSAR Prediction model, 2016) for the test substance Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-)) dialuminium (CAS no. 68475 -50 -3) using the SSS QSAR prediction model. The ready biodegradability of the test substance Tris(5-amino-4- hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium was estimated as 0.8% in 28 days by using BOD parameter. This result indicates that Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-)) dialuminium was estimated to be not readily bioderadable in water.

 

The screening test inherent to the biodegradability of the substance was calculated using the software BIOWIN v4.10 (EPI Suite, 2016). The results indicate that Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium is not expected to be readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation study was conducted (GREIM H et. al, 1994) for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 2-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid-. No degradation of test substance was determined in 28 days. Thus, the substance 2-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid- is not expectedto be readily biodegradable in water.

 

Biodegradation study was conducted (J-CHECK, 2016) for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 2-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid-. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentagedegradation of test substance was determined to be 3.8% by BOD, 0.7% by TOC removal, 0% by UV-Vis and 5.8% by HPLC in 14 days. Thus, the substance 2-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid- is not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

 

Biodegradation study was conducted (Kondo, M et. al; 1988) according to OECD TG 301 C guideline for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 2-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid-.Initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. Namely, a water, acetone or DMSO solution (0.1 ml) of the test chemicals was added to a mixture of river/sea water (4.9 ml) from an unpolluted area and an autoclaved solution (5.0ml) of 0.2% peptone in a sterile test tube with a tight plug. After sealed with film and fixed at an angle of 30°in a dark box, the test tubes were incubated at 30°C and shaked at 120rpm. Inoculum used for the study was mixed culture obtained from different sources (Sea water from Tama river and River water from Enoshima Beach). The percentage degradation of test substance was found to be 24% and 6% in 14 days, respectively. Thus, the substance 2-Amino-1- naphthalenesulfonic acid- was determined to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Biodegradation study of test substance 4-Amino-1,1’-azobenzene-3,4'-disulfonic acid (acid yellow 9) was performed using 15 differentStreptomyces spp. for 14 days (A. Paszcyzynski et. al; 1991). The test was performed using 15 differentStreptomyces sppas an inoculum. The test substance conc. used is 50 mg/l. EachStreptomyces spp. was grown in a cotton-plugged 250 ml flask containing 25 ml of the following medium: 0.2 M Tris buffer (pH 7.6) 100 ml, 1.0g vitamin-free Casamino acids, 100 µg thiamine, 100 µg biotin, 2 g D-glucose, 900 ml deionized wate. Thiamine, biotin, and D-glucose were filter sterilized and added to the autoclaved medium. The dye was filter sterilized and added at 0.005% (w/v) to the autoclaved basal medium. Cultures were incubated at 37ᵒC for 14 days with shaking (200 rev min1). Three replicates for each strain grown in only the basal medium were incubated as well.Degradation of test substance was determined by spectrophotometrically and by using HPLC.Degradation of the test substance was confirmed by HPLC. A Hewlett-Packard HP 1090 Liquid Chromatograph equipped with a HP 40 diode array UV-VIS detector and automatic injector was used. The chromatograph was controlled by an HP 9000 series 300 computer which used HP 7995 A ChemStation software. A reverse phase column from Phenomenex (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, type Spherex 5C 18 size 250 × 2.0 mm, s/no PP/6474A) was used. Each 15-min analysis used a solvent gradient of acetonitrile (solvent A) and 10mM DMS buffer pH 4.5 (solvent B), with the following conditions: 0-5 min, 100% A; 5-12 min, 25% A, 75% B; 12-15 min, 100% B; post time 2 min, injection volume 10µl. Absorption was measured at 250, 325, 350, 400 and 450 nm, and spectra were collected automatically by the peak controller.Spectrophotometric assay was also carried out. A 1 ml sample of actinomycete culture medium was centrifuged and then diluted 2.5 fold with water. Azo dye substrate present was then measured spectrophotometrically (Hewlett-Packard 8452 diode array spectrophotometer operated by PC Vectra computer with HP’s MSTM-DOS/UV-VIS software).The percentage biodegradation of test substance was found to be 0% i.e; no degradation of test substance was observed by the 15 differentStreptomyces spp. Thus, the test substance was found to be non-biodegradable.

 

Biodegradation study was conducted (GREIM H et. al, 1994) for 30 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance1,3-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 6-amino-. No degradation of test substance was determined by BOD in 30 days. Thus, the substance1,3-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 6-amino- is not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation study was conducted (J-CHECK, 2016) for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substanceSodium naphthionate. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 0% by BOD, O2 consumption, UV-Vis and Test mat. analysis and < 0%by TOC removal in 14 days. Thus, the substanceSodium naphthionateis not expected to be readily biodegradable in water.

 

On the basis of above results for target and read across substance, it can be concluded that the test substanceTris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminiumcannot be expected to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Half life period of Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium in water is observed to be 60 days (1440 hrs.) while in sediment it is 541.66 days (13000 hrs). Based on these half life values of Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in water and persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

Based on EPI prediction Level III Fugacity Model (EPI suite, 2016), the estimated half-life period of (Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo) naphthalene- 2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium (CAS No. 68475 -50 -3) in soil was obtained to be 120 days (2880 hrs). Based on this half-life value of (Tris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminium , it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment.

On the basis of available information, the test substanceTris(5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(2-))dialuminiumcannot be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.