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EC number: 931-597-4
CAS number: -
See Figures 3, 6, and 9 in Appendix E of the Study Report.
of 3 indicator metals (Cr, Cd, Pb) in blood were analysed in 2 male and
2 female satellite animals on study days 1, 14 and 28. Samples were
taken from the same animals predose, 1h and 6h after dosing; on study
day 14 only predose. Blood Pb concentrations showed dose-dependent
increases and modest accumulation during the study so that the predose
values on day 28 were about 1, 1, 2.5 and 4.5 µg/l in males and 1, 2, 4
and 7.5 µg/l in females at dose-levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000
mg/kg/day, respectively. Cr concentrations showed at most only very
slight increases and virtually no accumulation. Cd concentrations were
not affected by the treatment.
Wistar male rats were exposed to coal
fly ash aerosols at average exposure concentration of 10.4 mg/m3 for 7
hr/day, 5 days/week for 1 month. Some rats were sacrificed just after
the exposure, while others were kept for 6 or 10 months clearance time
before sacrifice. There were no differences in body weight gain between
fly ash exposure groups and controls, and the weights of lung, liver,
kidney and spleen were not affected by the treatment. In histopathology,
no adverse alterations were observed in lungs or lymph nodes. The
burden of fly ash was estimated by the measurement of aluminum contents
in rat organs. Aluminum concentrations in lungs of exposure groups were
much higher than those of controls. No apparent deposition of fly ash
was observed in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and blood, but lung burdens
of up to about 0.7 mg of fly ash were found. The apparent deposition
fraction was 5.1% after the 1-month exposure. The clearance rate of fly
ash derived aluminum deposited in rat lungs may be very slow.
Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to neutron-activated coal fly ash
for a single 95 min exposure period in a nose-only exposure system.
Radionuclides60Co,46Sc and59Fe were
selected as preferable fly ash tracers. Animals were serially killed
over a period from 15 min to 99 days for the analysis of the tracers
spectrometry. Radionuclide tracers46Sc and59Fe
were used as markers for the coal fly ash particulates. On the other
hand,60Co selectively leached from fly ash deposited in
lungs, was translocated to other sites and excreted in the urine. Most
of the urinary Co exposure took place within the first few days after
the exposure. About 2.3% of the inhaled fly as was initially retained in
the respiratory tract. The estimated biological half-lives of fly ash
were 2.6 and 34.5 days for the airways and alveolar deposits,
respectively. After 99 days the mean lung fly ash burden had decreased
to about 10% of its initial value.
accuracy for most of the elements in the QC was greater than 95%. The
RSD (relative standard deviation) values for each element in each sample
analyzed, determined by the ICP-MS as a measure of the deviation of the
individual elemental count rate from the mean triplicate result, were
less than 5%.
of metals in simulated biofluids
solubilities of toxic metals from the fractionated CDF with total
digests (mg/g) were: Al 0.36% (110 mg/g), Cr(III) 0.08% (1.3 mg/g), Cu
33% (0.9 mg/g), Ni 53% (1.7mg/g), Pb 9% (1.0 mg/g), Th 0.05% (0.02
mg/g), U 6.7% (0.03 mg/g), and Zn 78% (3.9 mg/g). No detectable
solubility of V was found (0.6 mg/g). With the same total digests,
solubilities of toxic metals from the fractionated CDF in SGF were
higher: Al 9.1%, Cr 7.7%, Cu 78%, Ni 53%, Pb 40%, Sr 29%, Th 10% U 33%,
V 67%, and Zn 77%. Solubility of these metals from bulk CDF and TDF in
SGF were: Al 6.9%, Cr 5.3%, Cu 78%, Ni 47.1%, Pb 19%, Sr 28.6%, Th 5%, U
67%, V 31%, and Zn 74%.
relation to international inhalation limits for the hazardous metals
present in CDF, the most restrictive was for
Pb at 0.0005 mg/m3 set by the Australian National
Environmental Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure (NEPM).
mass of fractionated CDF that could be inhaled ranged from 0.5 (total
Pb) to 6 mg/m3 (bioaccessible
Pb). However, the NEPM (which is due to be introduced in 2005) also
provides maximum concentration for generic particulate matter with an
aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (averaged over 1 day) at only 50
µg/m3. Hence, the fractionated CDF is over 100 times
more restrictive as a particulate than as a source of bioaccessible
was a substantial shift in the risk ranking for bioaccessible metals in
fractionated CDF between SLF and SGF
due to differential solubilities in those media (table). Lead, Cu, and
Zn were the highest risks in SLF while Al, Ni, and Pb were ranked in
SGF. In either media, Cr was much more restrictive when it was assumed
to be in the Cr VI form as distinct from Cr III. In an acidic
environment, such as the gut, most of the Cr would be reduced to the
less toxic form Cr III. Analysis
indicated that the levels of Cr were very low or undetectable (<50 ng/g)
in all media. That is, most of the metal in the leachates was present in
the Cr III form. The Cr III form is 500 times less restrictive as an
inhaled metal and considered innocuous when ingested.
was no substantial change in the relative risk of metals between the
fractionated and bulk samples of CDF in
SGF (Tables 2b and 3a).
upon likely exposures, the gut leachate values may be considered
hazardous. As little as 10 mg of the fly ash consumed per day exceeds
the limit for Al (based on the bioaccessible concentrations). This
ignores the contributions of adverse effects (potentially synergistic)
from any of the other toxic metals, notably bioaccessible Ni and Pb,
that will further restrict the ingestion of fly ash as their implied
limits are also at levels typically less than 100 mg per day. Less than
1 mg of CDF is required to exceed the limit based on total Al
large variation in leachability of the different metals observed in both
types of simulated biofluids is most likely the
result of partitioning of the metals among different types of solid
phases. A number of studies have shown that several metals exhibit
distinct preference for oxide, sulfate, or silicate particles rather
than a uniform distribution across all fly ash particles (e.g., ref 38).
Therefore, a mineralogical study of the material used here is currently
being conducted to better understand the leaching mechanism.
solid-to-liquid ratios have been shown to affect bioaccessibility in
some cases (39). The ratios used in our study
are comparatively high and hence may tend to reduce apparent
bioaccessibility. A future study to evaluate the effect of
solid-to-liquid ratio on Al, Ni, and Pb solubility from fly ash may be
normal adult male active breathing rate is assumed to be 1.2 m3/h
(based on a reference man value of 2400 m3/2000 h working
year (18)). This value over-estimates the weighted average rate that
would apply if females and
Characteristics of the ashes
Both ashes were strongly alkaline (pH 10.4–10.5). TOC and LOI values
were very low for bottom ash (< 0.5 g/kg d.w. and <0.5 % d.w.,
respectively). In case of fly ash, these results were higher (140 g/kg
d.w. and 15.6 ± 0.3% d.w., respectively). Dry matter content was 94.0%
for fly ash and 71.1% for bottom ash. No particles of a diameter range
between 0.5 and 16.0 mm existed in the fly ash, whereas these particles
accounted for approximately 81.1 weight percent (wt%) of the bottom ash.
The fly ash consists of small particles with a diameter of less than 0.5
Both ashes contained silicate minerals such as microcline [K(AlSi3O8)]
and quartz (SiO2), and their abundances in the ashes were relatively
similar. However, hematite (Fe2O3), which is an oxide mineral, and
dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), which is a carbonate mineral, only existed in the
fly ash and bottom ash, respectively.
Except for the total concentration of PAH in the fly ash (23 mg/kg
d.w.), which exceeded the limit value for an agent used in covered earth
construction, the other total concentrations in the ashes were less than the
statutory Finnish limit values for both covered and paved structures.
The extractable concentrations of DOC, heavy metals, fluoride, sulfate,
and chloride in the ashes and the limit values for the extractable
concentrations of these compounds in earth construction agents used for
covered and paved structures. Except for V, the extractable
concentrations of all other compounds in the fly ash were more than
those in the bottom ash.
Except for the extractable concentrations of Mo and Se in the fly ash,
which exceeded the limit value for agents used in covered earth
constructions, the other extractable concentrations in the ashes were
lower than the statutory Finnish limit values for use in both covered
and paved structures.
Extractability to artificial gastric
fluid and sweat
All the heavy metals in this study were extractable in the artificial
and gastric fluids. Except for Zn, the extractable concentrations of
heavy metals in the artificial gastric fluid were clearly more than
those in the artificial sweat fluid (see Table 4). The highest
extractable concentrations in the artificial sweat fluid were observed
for Ba, which were 16.9 mg/kg (d.w.) and 25.1 mg/kg (d.w.) for the
bottom ash and fly ash, respectively. The highest extractable
concentrations in the artificial gastric fluid also were observed for
Ba, which were 86.6 mg/kg (d.w.) and 446 mg/kg (d.w.) for the bottom ash
and fly ash, respectively. In addition, the extractability of Zn in both
ashes, and the extractability of Cu, As, V, and Pb for the fly ash were
relatively high in the artificial gastric fluid. These results are
reasonable considering that the pH of the gastric fluid was extremely
acidic both before (i.e., pH 1.49 for both ashes) and after (i.e., pH
1.62 for the bottom ash and 1.79 for the fly ash) extraction. However,
for the fly ash, the extractable concentration of Mo was slightly more
in the artificial sweat (6.9 mg/kg; d.w.) than that in the artificial
gastric fluid (5.2 mg/kg; d.w.). For the fly ash, the pH of the
artificial gastric fluid was extremely acidic both before (pH 1.49) and
after (pH 1.79) extraction, whereas the pH of the artificial sweat fluid
was slightly alkaline before (pH 6.50) and after extraction (pH 8.81).
The higher extractable concentration of Mo in the artificial sweat is
reasonable, because Mo is able to form oxyanions, which means that its
extractability clearly increases from acidic pH values to neutral and
alkaline conditions. Although the highest extractable concentration of
Se also occurs in strongly alkaline conditions, the extractability of Se
for the fly ash was practically the same in the artificial sweat (3.7
mg/kg; d.w.) and gastric (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) fluids.
The extraction recovery (R) values (%) for the metals, which were
determined as the ratio of the metal concentration extracted with
artificial sweat and gastric fluids (Table 4) to the total metal
concentration in the ash (Table 1), varied between 2.9% (V) and 71.2%
(Se) in the artificial sweat fluid and between 11.4% (V) and 94.1% (Cd)
in the artificial gastric fluid.
As a case study, the potential to use bottom ash and fly ash from a
large-sized (120 MW) bubbling fluidized bed boiler (BFB) at the power
plant of a fluting board mill were assessed to determine their
suitability for use as an earth construction agent. In addition, the
extractability of heavy metals in the ashes was determined using
artificial sweat and gastric fluids to assess the potential occupational
risk from ash handling.
Extraction of heavy metals in artificial gastric fluid was higher than
to artificial sweat due to very acidic pH. Additionally, heavy metal
concentrations were higher in smaller particle size fly ash extracts
than in bottom ash extracts. Because of the high extractability of
certain heavy metals in fly ash by using an artificial gastric fluid,
e.g., Ba (446 mg/kg; d.w.; 60.2%), V (65.6 mg/kg; d.w.; 69.2%), Zn (100
mg/kg; d.w.; 36.4%), Cu (38.3 mg/kg; d.w.; 38.5%), and As (36.7 mg/kg;
d.w.; 78.3%), the careful handling of this ash residue is recommended to
prevent the ingestion and penetration of ash particles across the human
Pastures and hay production areas for sheep were experimentally
cultivated with electrofilter ash. Potential effects on health and
breeding of sheep maintained on these pastures were studied. Ash
deposits were spread out in dumping areas in the depth of 2-4 meters
followed by several months of watering and compression to stabilize the
ground. The second phase included conveying, spreading, compression and
preparation of earth deposit at the depth of 0.5 meters, seeding of
grass and corresponding one year maintenance to make the pasture
suitable for grazing and production of hay for winter nutrition.
Experimental and control groups of 10 older ewes and 10 one year old
ewes were grazing on the pasture cultivated with electrofilter ash or
ordinary pastures in the surrounding area, respectively. Health
condition, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and reproductive
performance were monitored during the study. Animals from each group
were slaughtered after one or two years and hematological, clinical
chemistry, gross pathological, histopathological and analytical
chemistry analyses were carried out. Levels of heavy metals (Table 6.)
and radionuclides (Table 7.) in tissues of sheep maintained on
electrofilter ash treated pasture were mainly lower than those of sheep
maintained on control pasture. All the levels were below administrative
reference values. The significant difference was not observed in the
health status, the studied parameters or the reproductive performance
between the experimental and the control animals.
Although workers used protective gloves metals (arsenic, cadmium,
nickel, lead) were detected in their hands. Smaller concentrations of
these metals were also detected in whole body samples. Protective
clothing protected the body skin more efficiently than gloves.
With regard to total exposures only modestly increased lead
concentrations were observed in blood samples of exposed workers. The
average blood lead concentration of workers (0.11 μmol/l = 22.8 µg/l)
was only slightly higher than the reference value for non-exposed
persons (including pregnant women) (0.09 μmol/l = 18.6 µg/l) as set by
the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, and therefore not likely
to be associated with adverse health effects. Blood cadmium
concentrations (mean 7 nmol/l) were below the reference value for
non-exposed persons (18 nmol/l). Similarly, concentrations of aluminum,
manganese, mercury, arsenic and selenium in the urine of exposed workers
were all clearly below the reference values.
Based on the results the use of powered air respirators with ABEK+P3
cartridges and face masks as the minimum requirement for people who have
to work inside coal-fired power plant boilers is recommended. During
work tasks outside the boilers, the use of P3-class respirators is
recommended. Workers should also use over-the-wrist long protective
gloves, and pay more attention to their personal hygiene in order to
avoid hand and body exposure to metals. In addition, workers should also
properly maintain and clean their personal respirators, mask, gloves and
clothes to minimize exposures to chemical agents.
Exposure of power plant workers to harmful chemicals of ash was
monitored during different work tasks (e.g. demolition of walls, washing
of boilers and reparation of electric filters) inside the power plant
components. Three power plants using mainly coal, but also to some
extent sawdust and some other fuels. Biomonitoring samples indicated
that total exposures to lead, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, mercury,
arsenic and selenium were low.
The use of powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and face
masks as the minimum requirement for people who have to work inside
coal-fired power plant boilers is recommended. During work tasks outside
the boilers, the use of P3-class respirators is recommended. Workers
should also use over-the-wrist long protective gloves, and pay more
attention to their personal hygiene in order to avoid hand and body
exposure to metals.
The measured metal concentrations correlated with the measured
concentrations of metals in the workplace air (Jumpponen et. al. 2014).
The correlation was found to be best for Pb.
Exposure of workers to metals was studied during the maintenance and the
ash removal tasks in the annual shut-down of eight biomass-fired power
plants. Whole-body samples and hand-washing method were used for dermal
exposure assessment, and biomonitoring of metals in urine for total
exposure assessment. In recycled fuel-fired power plants, workers’
excretions of Al, Pb, and Mn exceeded the reference values of
non-exposed population in 33%, 100%, and 50% of samples, respectively.
The fact that the workers’ urinary excretions of metals exceeded the
reference values proved intake of metals during these work tasks. Average
urine excretions of Al, Cd, Pb, and Se were smallest in workers using
respirators with the TM3-A2B2E2K2-P class filters, compared to usage or
no usage of other respirators. Average urine excretions of Pb were
highest (3.5 μg/l) when respirators were not used, and its concentration
exceeded clearly its reference value (U-Pb = < 1.7 μg/l). Biomonitoring
of blood Pb would be the most recommendable way to assess the total Pb
exposure of workers, because it has lower contamination risk and lower
background variation then urine Pb. It is recommended that biomass-fired
power plant workers, especially those who work inside the power plant
boilers or superheaters, should routinely use powered air respirators
with TM3-A2B2E2K2-P cartridges, and hooded one-piece coveralls and
over-wrist long leather protective gloves.
1 Chemical analysis on coal combustion fly ash (Scholven)
1 sample analysed
2 Analysis of milk samples collected at the end of the second year.Mean
values (%) determined by two different laboratories.
300 g fly ash / day /animal
1500 - 1800 g fly ash / day /animal
1500 - 1800 g fly ash/ day /animal
3 Analysis of blood samples collected at the end of the second year.Mean
values (%) determined by two different laboratories.
4 Analysis of urine samples collected at the end of the second year.Mean
values (%) determined by two different laboratories.
was only analysed only by one laboratorium
5 Analysis of faeces collected at the end of the second year.Mean
values (% of fresh weight) determined by two different laboratories.
was analysed only by one laboratory
Groups of 3 milking cows
were exposed daily to coal fly ash mixed with fodder at 0, 300 or
1500-1800 g/day (equivalent with about 0, 430 or 2100-2600 mg/kg bw/day)
for 3 years in a non-GLP study. (After 2 years the control group and the
low dose group were switched.) Chemical analyses of milk, excreta and
tissues were performed. After two years no changes in chemical
parameters in milk, blood, urine, liver or bone were found. Instead,
oral administration of fly ash for 2 years dose-dependently affected the
analysed variables of faeces. Dose-dependent increase in concentrations
of the analysed variables reflects the unabsorbed constituents of fly
ash and suggests low gastrointestinal absorption potential of these
constituents of fly ash. As a conclusion, chemical analyses showed low
oral bioavailability of As, Mn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn and Co from fly coal ash.
Leaching and dissolution studies with Ash indicated low leachability of metals from Ash. In accordance with these findings toxicokinetic data indicate that even at high doses the systemic exposure to metals Pb, Cd, and Cr from Ash or to Al from CFA is negligible and clearly below levels causing toxic effects. Also biomonitoring of power plant workers during ash removal and maintenance tasks indicated low systemic bioavailability of metals.
and dissolution studies carried out in vitro can be used to estimate the
theoretically bioavailable fraction of potentially harmful substances of
Ash by measuring their extractability to different solvents (Välimäki I.
(2010), Water solubility.leaching test.002). When homogenized Ash was
leached in the two phase extraction with ultraclean water for 6 + 8 h
barium was the most leachable metal (11.5% of the concentration present
in Ash was leached into the cumulative eluate). The other metals leached
only to a minor extent as follows: selenium 3.53%, molybdenum 2.04%,
lead 0.36% and zinc 0.03%. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, chromium,
copper, mercury, nickel, antimony, tin and vanadium in the eluate were
below the quantitation limits. Of these compounds selenium, molybdenum,
zink, cobalt, chromium3+, copper, nickel and to some extent vanadium are
essential trace elements and normally present in the body (Tokar et al.,
2013). They are present in Ash at so low concentrations that they are
unlikely to have toxicological significance. Barium is a relatively
abundant alkaline earth metal that is commonly found in plants and
animal tissues, and even at high amounts in some foods, such as Brazil
nuts, pecans and seafood. The amounts of barium from these sources do
not usually cause health concern, and occupational exposure primarily
occurs during mining and manufacturing activities (Tokar et al., 2013).
Also the concentrations and leachability of mercury, antimony and tin
are so low that they are not considered toxicologically relevant.
extraction test for of ammonium acetate soluble elements the most
soluble metal was calcium followed by magnesium, silicon, potassium,
sodium, aluminum, phosphorus and iron (Välimäki I. (2010), Water
solubility.acetate extraction.003). The best extracted trace metals were
zinc and copper while lead, nickel, arsenic and cadmium were less
observed low leachability of metals from Ash is also in agreement with
results of the dissolution studies of Twinings et al. (2005, Basic
toxicokinetics.005), which indicated that only a proportion of total
metal concentrations in fly ash a was soluble and thus bioavailable in
simulated human lung and gut fluids. Furthermore, with regard to the
regulatory limits for inhalation of particulates, none of the metal
concentrations measured were as hazardous as the fly ash particulates
themselves. Overall, the metals were more soluble to the simulated gut
fluid than to the simulated lung fluid. Similarly, Manskinen et al.
(2012, Basic toxicokinetics.006) reported that heavy metals were more
extractable to the artificial gastric fluid that to the artificial
sweat. These data suggest that oral exposure to ash is likely to result
in higher systemic exposure than inhalation or dermal exposure.
Accordingly, observations of Matsuno et al. (1986, Basic
toxicokinetics.002) suggested low bioavailability of metals after
inhalation of CFA. They studied deposition of CFA after inhalation
exposure for 28 days by determining aluminum levels in different organs,
and found increased levels only in lungs, but not in liver, kidney,
spleen or blood.
accordance with the outcome of leaching and dissolution studies the
toxicokinetic analyses carried out during the 28-day oral toxicity study
indicate very low or negligible oral bioavailability of potentially
toxic metals from Ash. Of the selected indicator heavy metals of Ash
(Pb, Cd, Cr) only Pb showed modest accumulation in terms of slightly
increased blood concentration during the course of the 28-day oral
toxicity study even after exceptionally high daily doses of Ash (up to
2000 mg/kg bw/day; limit dose for repeated dose toxicity studies is 1000
mg/kg bw/day!). Blood Pb concentrations did not reach toxic levels. At
the highest dose level of 2000 mg/kg bw/day (equivalent with 0.36 mg
Pb/kg bw/day) the blood lead concentrations were only 5-13 µg/l on day
28 of the study. These concentrations are almost an order of magnitude
lower than the lowest blood levels in humans associated with the
well-characterized adverse effects of lead (Goyer, 1996; Bellinger,
2005), and well below the reference value for non-exposed persons,
including pregnant women (18.6 µg/l). Dosing of Ash did not affect the
blood Cd levels at all and they did not increase in the course of the
study. The values ranged from below the detection limit (0.008 µg/l) to
0.337 µg/l. These levels are also well below the reference limits for
non-exposed humans (0.562 µg/l [5 nmol/l] for non-smokers and 2.023 µg/l
[18 nmol/l] for smokers) (Finnish Institute of Occupational Health,
2015). For Cr there was a weak trend for dependence of blood
concentration on dose at the end of the study only, but no accumulation.
At 2000 mg/kg/day the blood Cr concentrations on day 28 of the study
were 0.9-1.41 µg/l, and the highest measured Cr concentration during the
study was 2.25µg/l. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease Registry (ATSDR, 2015) the normal blood chromium concentrations
are 20-30 µg/l. The results imply that the oral bioavailability of Pb,
Cd and Cr from Ash is very low and that it is not possible to administer
Ash to rats at so high doses that blood concentrations of these metals
would reach toxic levels. The measured blood concentrations also
reflected the outcome of the leaching test, which indicated that only
0.36% of Pb in Ash was dissolved in the cumulative eluate, and that
leached concentrations of both Cd and Cr were below the quantitation
limit (<0.42% and < 0.16%, respectively) (Välimäki I. (2010), Water
supporting studies also suggest negligible oral bioavailability of
potentially toxic metals from Ash. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and As
in muscle, liver and kidney of sheep maintained for one year on pastures
treated with electrofilter ash from coal power plants were not increased
(Pestevsek et al., 2000: Toxicity to reproduction.001). Similarly,
concentrations of As, Mn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn or Co in liver or bone of
milking cows were not increased after oral exposure to coal fly ash at
doses up to about 2100 mg/kg bw/day for 2 years (Herrmann, 1955: Toxicity
exposure of rats to CFA at the concentration of 10.4 mg/m3 for 7 h per
day, 5 days per week for one month indicated that the systemic
bioavailability of aluminum from CFA is very low (Matsuno et al., 1986:
Basic toxicokinetics.002). Samples were analysed at the end of the
exposure period and after recovery of 6 or 10 months, and elevated
aluminum concentrations were observed only in lungs, but not in liver,
kidneys, spleen or blood.
the toxicokinetic data indicate that the systemic exposure to metals Pb,
Cd, and Cr from Ash or to Al from CFA is negligible and clearly below
levels causing toxic effects. The results also imply that it is not
possible to administer Ash to rats at so high doses that the blood
concentrations of these metals would reach toxic levels.
studies on exposure of power plant workers to harmful chemicals of ash
during ash removal and maintenance tasks indicated also low systemic
bioavailability (Jumpponen M. et al., 2014: Basic toxicokinetics.008).
Modestly increased Pb concentrations were observed in blood samples of
exposed workers. The average blood Pb concentration of workers (0.11
μmol/l = 22.8 µg/l) was only slightly higher than the reference value
for non-exposed persons (including pregnant women) (0.09 μmol/l = 18.6
µg/l), and therefore not likely to be associated with adverse health
effects. Blood cadmium concentrations (7.0 nmol/l = 0.787 µg/l) were
below the reference value for non-exposed persons (18 nmol/l = 2.023
µg/l). Similarly, concentrations of aluminum, manganese, mercury,
arsenic and selenium in urine of the exposed workers were all below the
reference values for non-exposed persons.
of ash removal and maintenance workers from power plants using different
types of biomass fuel (pellet, peat, wood or recycled fuel) who variably
used personal protection equipment (ranging from no respirator at all to
respirators with efficient filters and variable degree of protective
clothing) revealed increased urinary excretion of Pb, Mn and As above
the reference values of non-exposed population (Finnish Institute of
Occupational Health, 2015) in 17%, 33% and 50% of the workers (Jumpponen
et al., 2015: Basic toxicokinetics.009). However, the median excretions
did not exceed the reference values. The highest excretions were in
workers of recycled fuel-fired power plants. As expected, the proper use
of respirators and protective gloves and clothes decreased the exposure
Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 2015. Environmental Health
and Medicine Education. Chromium Toxicity. Clinical Assessment –
DC. Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol
Teratol. 2005; 73(6):409-20.
Institute of Occupational Health (2015). Biomonitoring of exposure to
chemicals. Guideline for specimen collection. 44
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Results of lead research: prenatal exposure and neurological
consequences. Environ Health Perspect. 1996; 104(10):1050-4.
E.J., Boyd W.A., Freedman J.H., Waalkes M.P. Toxic effects of metals.
In: Klaassen C.D. (ed.) Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology. The Basic Science
of Poisons. 8thedition. 2013. McGraw Hill Education.
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