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EC number: 931-597-4
CAS number: -
The method development phase of the analysis indicated that the most
appropriate test and material parameters to obtain the optimum
Dispersant : Air
Dispersion pressure : 3 barg
Refractive index (sample) : 0.0 n
Absorption : 0.0 AU
Analysis Model : General Purpose (Normal)
Using the identified parameters, the particle size was analysed over the
range 0.02 μm to 2000 μm. Sample particulates were inspected in various
solvents but found to agglomerates; therefore dry powder analysis was
deemed more suitable. The results of the formal analysis are presented
in the table. In addition, a graph of volume (%) versus Particle
Diameter (μm), and full particle size distribution, is provided in Graph
8.A (Average of 5 runs).
Table 1. Full test results
All results are in μm
* Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter
** Average result is calculated from the entirety of data captured in
each run and is not a simple arithmetic mean.
36.63 % by volume of sample was seen to be < 10.00 μm.
Table 2. Standard Deviation results
GSD = Geometric standard deviation STDVP=Standard deviation of the
Coefficient of variation for d50 is less than 3%; d10 and d90 are less
than 5%. Thus repeatability of the characteristic particles in the size
distribution are within the acceptable limits as per the ISO 13320 test
Ash particle size distribution was analysed in a GLP laboratory using
the standard BS ISO 13320:2009 accordant Laser Diffraction method.
Particle size distribution of Ash was determined to be 0.2 - 2000 µm.
The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of Ash was 35.9 µm and the volume
weighted mean was 90.301 µm. By volume, 36.6 % of Ash particles were
smaller than 10.00 µm. The major proportion (90%) of Ash particles were
smaller than 275 µm.
Standard visual observation
Sample observed to be large grey particles which formed clusters. Some
particles believed to be > 2000 μm therefore a separate manual sieve
analysis was performed.
Observation at 100 x magnification
The particles appeared to be irregular shaped crystals. The smallest
mean particle size was approximately 3 μm and the largest mean size was
approximately 651 μm.
Observation at 400 x magnification
The sample was observed to be made up of single crystalline particles.
Table 1. Full Test Results from the Manual Sieve Analysis
size of Ash was screened visually and with optical microscope
observation at 100 x and 400 x magnification. Visually, Ash was observed
to consist of grey particles which formed clusters. The more detailed
microscopic observation showed irregular shaped particles, of which 99.8
% were smaller than 2000 μm.
The smallest mean particle size was approximately 3 μm
and the largest mean size was approximately 651 μm.
The particle size distribution of Ash was determined with optical microscope analysis, sieving analysis and Laser Diffraction method. The Laser Diffraction analysis was performed according to BS ISO 13320:2009 standard. The particle size distribution was 0.2 - 2000 µm. The Mass Median Diameter was 35.873 µm and the volume weighted mean was 90.301 µm.
size distribution of Ash was determined to be 0.2 - 2000 µm. Totally,
99.8% of the particles fit inside this range. According to the optical
microscope observation at 100 x magnification, the Ash particles were
irregularly shaped crystals with mean sizes between 3 and 651 µm. On the
basis of Laser diffraction analysis, Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of
Ash was 35.9 µm and volume weighted mean was 90.301 µm. The major
proportion (90%) of Ash particles had an aerodynamic diameter smaller
than 275 µm. Volumetric proportions of certain smaller particle sizes of
Ash are presented in table 1.
1. Volumetric proportions of inhalation toxicologically relevant
particle sizes of Ash presented as aerodynamic diameter.
Particle size (µm)
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