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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The 24-hour LC50 of 173 substances hazardous to water was determined be means of a standardised procedure using 24-hour animals from a clone of Daphnia magna. At the same time, the LC0 and LC100 for each of these pollutants were determined. The test medium was tap water free from chlorine, saturated with oxygen.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION OF TEST SOLUTION
The substances to be tested were quantitiatively dissolved in tap water using magnetic stirrers in sealed containers and a dilution series prepared.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: stock culture

CULTURE CONDITIONS
Cultures were kept in covered glassware and were exposed to at least 12 hours diffused daylight (additional lighting if required) and were kept at 20-22°C. The Daphnia were fed daily with algae. On Monday and Friday every week, the tap water of all cultures was renewed. This happened as part of the routine daily selective screening of the mother animals or juvenile animals. Incipient detritus in the culture vessels was removed daily.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Hardness:
16°
Test temperature:
20 - 22°C
pH:
7.6 - 7.7
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL glass beaker
- Type: closed (vessels were loosely covered with a layer of filter paper)
- Fill volume: 20 mL
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 (24 hour daphnids)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: dechlorinated tap water
- Culture medium different from test medium: no

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: yes
- Photoperiod: natural daylight (the test was conducted without rtificial lighting or exclusion of daylight while avoiding direct sunlight)

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED
The number of Daphnia magna floating on the surface were counted.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: no
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
500 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
63 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour LC50 of the test material to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 500 mg/L. The 24-hour LC0 and LC100 were determined to be 63 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

The 24-hour LC50 of 173 substances hazardous to water was determined be means of a standardised procedure using 24-hour animals from a clone of Daphnia magna. At the same time, the LC0 and LC100 for each of these pollutants were determined. The test medium was tap water free from chlorine, saturated with oxygen.

Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour LC50 of the registered substance to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 500 mg/L. The 24-hour LC0 and LC100 were determined to be 63 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The toxicity of 183 substances to the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was assessed in defined standardised culture medium (artificial freshwater) according to a standardised procedure. The Daphnia were exposed to the test media for 24 hours and the number of immobilised daphnia were counted. The 24 hour EC0, EC50 and EC100 were determined.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION OF TEST SOLUTION
The substances to be tested were quantitiatively dissolved in tap water using magnetic stirrers in sealed containers and a dilution series prepared.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: stock culture
- Strain/clone: Daphnia magna Strauss IRCHA

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
8.0 ± 0.2
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL glass beakers
- Type: closed (vessels were loosely covered with a layer of filter paper)
- Fill volume: 20 mL
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 (24 hour daphnids)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: a standardised synthetic medium (artificial sweet water)was used as test medium. It was prepared according to DIN, and was composed as follows:
a) 11.76 g CaCl2.2H2O dissolved in deionised water; the solution was made up to 1 L with deionised water
b) 4.93 g MgSO4.7H2O dissolved deionised water; the solution was made up to 1 L with deionised water
c) 2.59 g NaHCO3 dissolved deionised water; the solution was made up to 1 L with deionised water
d) 0.23 g KCl dissolved in deionised water; the solution was made up to 1 L with deionised water

From the solutions a) to d), 25 mL each were pipetted into a volumetric flask and made up to 1 liter with water.
The sum of calcium and magnesium ions in this solution was 2.5 mmol / L. The molar ratio of sodium to potassium ions 10:1.
This water was aerated to the oxygen saturation value and the pH was measured (8.0 ± 0.2).

- Intervals of water quality measurement: At the end of the test period, the pH in the test and control vessels was measured to determine if the concentration of hydrogen ions remained in a range suitable for Daphnia (assay pH 8.0 ± 0.2) or determined by a pH effect of O2 content to determine whether the O2 concentration at the end of the test had not fallen below 2 mg / L.

- Culture medium different from test medium: yes. Culture medium was dechlorinated tap water.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- The test vessels were held in an incubator at 20°C

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED
The number of Daphnia magna floating on the surface were counted.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: no
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: (P95%: 849 - 1177 mg/L)
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
4 - 120 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
1 786 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour EC50 of the test material to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 1000 mg/L. The 24-hour EC0 and EC100 were determined to be 4-120 mg/L and 1786 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 183 substances to the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was assessed in defined standardised culture medium (artificial freshwater) according to a standardised procedure. The Daphnia were exposed to the test media for 24 hours and the number of immobilised daphnia were counted. The 24 hour EC0, EC50 and EC100 were determined.

Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour EC50 of the test material to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 1000 mg/L. The 24-hour EC0 and EC100 were determined to be 4-120 mg/L and 1786 mg/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not specified
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study
Related information:
Composition 1
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Investigations were carried out in order to determine the "no observed effect concentration" (NOEC) of 73 environmentally relevant substances in the 21 d Daphnia reproduction test. The test was conducted in line with the provisional procedure proposed by the Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) (as of 1 January 1984). The test report also presents results from an acute 24 h Daphnia test and a preliminary 3 d Daphnia test (same conditions as in the 21 d reproduction test). However, no information is provided on the test methods of the acute 24 hour test and no results are presented from the 3 d preliminary study.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
516 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
not specified
Key result
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
121 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
not specified
Conclusions:
The publication reports the 24 hour EC50 for the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to be 516 mg/L.
Executive summary:

A publication reporting on investigations carried out in order to determine the "no observed effect concentration" (NOEC) of 73 environmentally relevant substances in the 21 d Daphnia reproduction test also presents results from an acute 24 h Daphnia test and a preliminary 3 d Daphnia test (same conditions as in the 21 d reproduction test). However, no information is provided on the test methods of the acute 24 hour test and no results are presented from the 3 d preliminary study.

The publication reports the 24 hour EC50 for the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to be 516 mg/L.

Description of key information

Bringmann (1977)

Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour LC50 of the registered substance to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 500 mg/L. The 24-hour LC0 and LC100 were determined to be 63 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, respectively.

Bringmann (1982)

Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour EC50 of the test material to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 1000 mg/L. The 24-hour EC0 and EC100 were determined to be 4-120 mg/L and 1786 mg/L, respectively.

Kuhn (1989)

The publication reports the 24 hour EC50 for the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to be 516 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
500 mg/L

Additional information

Three publications, including information on the acute toxicity of the registered substance, to the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, are available. Two publications (Bringmann 1977 and Bringmann 1982) include well documented study methodology which is acceptable for assessment of the relevant results presented. These two references were therefore awarded a reliability score of 2 in accordance with the criteria set forth by Klimisch et al. (1997). The Kuhn (1989) reference did not contain information on the methodology used for determining the 24-hour EC50 value reported and was therefore awarded a reliability score of 4 in accordance with the criteria set forth by Klimisch et al. (1997).

The three references report comparable results and are therefore considered together in a weight of evidence approach. The lowest EC50 value reported is taken as the key value as this is deemed to be the most conservative approach.

Bringmann (1977)

The 24-hour LC50 of 173 substances hazardous to water was determined be means of a standardised procedure using 24-hour animals from a clone of Daphnia magna. At the same time, the LC0 and LC100 for each of these pollutants were determined. The test medium was tap water free from chlorine, saturated with oxygen.

Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour LC50 of the registered substance to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 500 mg/L. The 24-hour LC0 and LC100 were determined to be 63 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, respectively.

Bringmann (1982)

The toxicity of 183 substances to the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was assessed in defined standardised culture medium (artificial freshwater) according to a standardised procedure. The Daphnia were exposed to the test media for 24 hours and the number of immobilised daphnia were counted. The 24 hour EC0, EC50 and EC100 were determined.

Under the conditions of the study the 24-hour EC50 of the test material to the aqautic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was determined to be 1000 mg/L. The 24-hour EC0 and EC100 were determined to be 4-120 mg/L and 1786 mg/L, respectively.

Kuhn (1989)

A publication reporting on investigations carried out in order to determine the "no observed effect concentration" (NOEC) of 73 environmentally relevant substances in the 21 d Daphnia reproduction test also presents results from an acute 24 h Daphnia test and a preliminary 3 d Daphnia test (same conditions as in the 21 d reproduction test). However, no information is provided on the test methods of the acute 24 hour test and no results are presented from the 3 d preliminary study.

The publication reports the 24 hour EC50 for the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to be 516 mg/L.