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Description of key information

The skin sensitization potential of 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) was estimated by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor. The substance 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) induce strong skin sanitization on guinea pig skin and hence is considered to be sensitizing to the skin.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin sensitisation

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
skin sensitisation: in vivo (non-LLNA)
Remarks:
in vivo
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 and QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: estimated data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study:
other: GPMT
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid
- Molecular formula: C6H6ClNO3S
- Molecular weight: 207.636 g/mol
- Smiles notation: S(c1c(ccc(c1)N)Cl)(O)(=O)=O
- InChl: 1S/C6H6ClNO3S/c7-5-2-1-4(8)3-6(5)12(9,10)11/h1-3H,8H2,(H,9,10,11)
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Species:
guinea pig
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Route:
other: No data available
Adequacy of induction:
not specified
Route:
other: No data available
No. of animals per dose:
No data available
Reading:
1st reading
Group:
test group
Clinical observations:
skin senitizing effcts were observed.
Remarks on result:
positive indication of skin sensitisation

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "S M W N"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and "g" )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and ("l" and "m" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Radical AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines AND SN1 AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Strong binder, NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4 ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Radical AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines AND SN1 AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR No alert found OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitro Azoarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Polynitroarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones and Trihydroxybenzenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitro Azoarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Polynitroarenes by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.4

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4 ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amines AND Sulfonic acids or their salts by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Phenols by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Nitrogen, one aromatic attach [-N] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Chlorine, aromatic attach [-Cl] AND Chlorine, olefinic attach [-Cl] AND Hydroxy, sulfur attach [-OH] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] AND Suflur {v+4} or {v+6} AND Sulfinic acid [-S(=O)OH] AND Sulfonate, aromatic attach [-SO2-O] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aromatic attach [-COOH] OR Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] OR Aliphatic Carbon [CH] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH3] OR Amino, aliphatic attach [-N<] OR Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -2.08

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 0.252

Interpretation of results:
other: skin sensitizer
Conclusions:
The skin sensitization potential of 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) was estimated by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor. The substance 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) induce strong skin sanitization on guinea pig skin and hence is considered to be sensitizing to the skin.
Executive summary:

The skin sensitization potential of 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) was estimated by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor. The substance 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) induce strong skin sanitization on guinea pig skin and hence is considered to be sensitizing to the skin.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed (sensitising)
Additional information:

Skin sensitization:

Various studieshas been investigated for the test chemical5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7)to observe the potential for skin sensitization to a greater or lesser extent. The studies are based on in vivo experiments inguinea pigsfor target chemical5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) and its structurally similar read across substancesSulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3) (inmouse) and 4-Nitro-4’-aminodiphenylamine-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 91-29-2) .The predicted data using the OECD QSAR toolbox has also been compared with the experimental data and summarized as below;

The skin sensitization potential of 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) was estimated by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor. The substance 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) induce strong skin sanitization on guinea pig skin and hence is considered to be sensitizing to the skin.

 

The above result was supported by experimental studies reported by IFA GESTIS onstructurally similar read across substancesSulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3) in guinea pigs and mouse which have been summarized as follows;

 

In the by guinea pig maximization test for chemical Sulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3), known skin effects were observed. Hence Sulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3) was considered to be sensitizing to guinea pigs.

In next skin sensitization test was carried out in mouse by mouse ear swelling test for chemical Sulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3). Since the chemical induce potents skin effects were observed the chemical Sulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3) can be considered as sensitizing to mouse.

 

The above results were further supported by The Magnusson and Kligman guinea pig maximization test conducted by BG Chemie (2000) was conducted for another chemical 4-Nitro-4’-aminodiphenylamine-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 91-29-2) in accordance with OECD guideline No. 406. Based upon the preliminary investigations, sensitization test was performed. In this test 20 female Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (average initial weight: 385 g) were exposed to the test chemical 4-nitro-4’-aminodiphenylamine- 2-sulfonic acid (60.6% test compound; 3.4% dicondensation pro-duct, 0.8% p-diaminobenzene, 0.3% chloronitrous acid, 33.2% water) . 20 control animals were also used. The guinea pigs were induced intradermally and topically with 2.5% aqueous solution of test chemical which was followed by challenge treatment. During challenge animals were treated with the 25 % and 12% aqueous solution of test chemical and later observed for skin reactions. It was observed that all of the 20 guinea pigs that underwent induction showed positive reactions to both the 25 % and 12% aqueous solution, while the 20 controls did not exhibit skin reactions. Hence the test chemical 4-Nitro-4’-aminodiphenylamine-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 91-29-2) was considered to be sensitizing on female Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs.

 

Based on the available data for the targetchemical5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) and its structurally similar read across substancesSulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3) and 4-nitro-4’-aminodiphenylamine-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 91-29-2),it can be concluded thatchemical5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) is able to cause skin sensitization and thus can be considered as sensitizing .

Respiratory sensitisation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Justification for classification or non-classification

The skin sensitization potential of test substance 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) and its structurally similar read across substancesSulfanilic acid (CAS No: 121­57­3) and4-nitro-4’-aminodiphenylamine-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 91-29-2) were observed in various studies. From the results obtained from these studies it is concluded that the chemical 5-amino-2-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No: 88-43-7) is able to cause skin sensitization and hence can be classified as skin sensitizer.