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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GlP Guideline Study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Test concentrations: at 0 and 48 hours, Control at 48hours
- Sampling method: from freshly prepared medium
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: The biological test solutions were routinely measured on the day of sampling. If this was exceptionally not possible, the samples were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C until the analysis was carried out. The biological test solutions were analysed in the same way as the calibration samples.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Pre-treatment of test item and preparation of test item concentrations:
- 100.4 mg of PDI were added to 1 l of dilution water (Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF))
- stirred for 24 hour on a magnetic stirrer
- undissolved particles were removed by filtration using a folded filter with a pore size of 7-12 μm
- pH was measured to be 7.7
- 50 mL of the solution were taken and diluted with 0.5 mL of dilution water containing 5 daphnids resulting in a final concentration of 100 mg/L.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Test Organism
- Common name: Daphnia magna STRAUS, parthenogenetic females
- Source: Strain of Bundesgesundheitsamt Berlin

Maintenance and Acclimatisation:
- A population of parthenogenetic females of synchronized age structure has been maintained for more than 20 years in the test facility under constant temperature conditions (20 +/- 2 °C) at a 16 : 8 hour light-dark photoperiod (light intensity: < 20 µE x m-2 x s-1). The culture water (so-called 'M4 medium') was partly renewed once a week. The Daphnia were exclusively fed unicellular green algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus) 'ad libitum'. Mortalities of parent Daphnia during the culture period were recorded daily in a semi-quantitative way. The neonates were separated from their parent Daphnia by filtration prior to the acute test.

Culture and dilution water:
- Reconstituted water (so-called 'M4 medium' according to OECD 202) was used for the maintenance of the test animals and the preparation of stock and test solutions of the test item.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
13.0 °dH (= 232 mg/L CaCO3).
Test temperature:
20.7 °C at start, 20.8 °C after 48 h (Control)
20.9 °C at start, 20.7 °C after 48 h ( 100 mg/L test concentration)
pH:
7.9 at start, 7.9 after 48 h (Control)
7.5 at start, 7.8 after 48 h ( 100 mg/L test concentration)
Dissolved oxygen:
8.2 mg/L at start, 8.5 after 48 h (Control)
7.5 mg/L at start, 8.6 after 48 h ( 100 mg/L test concentration)
Salinity:
n.a.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration of test substance : 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM:
- keeping water: 'M4 medium' according to OECD 202
- photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark
- feeding: none
- aeration: none
- test vessel: 50 mL glass beakers covered with watch glasses, 20 ml test medium
- number of daphnia per beaker: 5 neonates per vessel
- test parameter: immobility
- method of administration: direct weighing
- test concentrations (nominal): test concentration (100 mg/L) plus 1 control
- number of replicate:4 (per concentration/control)
- medium renewal: none
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
DOC Value (100 mg/L PDI): 48.026 mg/L at start, 41.167 mg/L after 48 h
DOC Value (Control): < 2 mg/L after 48 h
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(- The immobilisation and other abnormalities in the controls did not exceed 10% by the end of the test. - The dissolved oxygen concentration remained above 3 mg/L throughout the exposure period.)
Conclusions:
No toxic effects against daphnia magna were observed at the limit loading of 100 mg/L under exposure conditions.
Executive summary:

In order to test acute toxicity to invertibrates Daphnia were exposed to a limit effective loading of nominally of 100 mg/L PDI dissolved in dilution water. The substance has not a definite or unique structure and consists of several components. A Water Accommodated Fractions (WAF) was used to test effects at an effective loading and no specific analysis was performed. 50 mL of the solution were taken and diluted with 0.5 mL of dilution water containing 5 daphnids resulting in a final concentration of 100 mg/L. For each test item concentration and the control 4 replicates were prepared. The content of PDI during the exposure period was verified by DOC determination. The test was conducted as a static test with the test medium unchanged throughout the duration of the test. The criterion of adverse effects used in this study was the item-induced alteration of the normal mobility behaviour and the loss of locomotory actions of the neonates, observed at 24 and 48 hours. No toxic effects against daphnia magna were observed at the limit loading of 100 mg/L under exposure conditions.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for the actue daphnia study.

Description of key information

After 48 hours no toxic effects against daphnia magna were observed at the limit loading of 100 mg/L under exposure conditions (Spoo-Klöppel, 2016).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect concentration:
100 mg/L

Additional information

"Should read: EL-50 > 100 mg/L"

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