Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Mutagenicity in bacterial reverse mutation assays (Ames test) with the Prival modification for azo-dyes have been performed for Pigment Yellow 83. All available tests revealed negative results with and without metabolic activation.

In vitro gene mutation in mammalian cells (Mouse Lymphoma Assay) has been studied for the structural analogues, Pigment Yellow 12. Results were negative in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.

A reliable study on the induction of chromosome aberration in mammalian cells in vitro is available for the strcutural analogue, Pigment Yellow 12, which gave negative results with and without metabolic activation.

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 11 JUN 2002 to 27 JUN 2002
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.5100 - Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test (August 1998)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
rat liver S9; hamster liver S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
50, 160, 500, 1600, 5000 µg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: solubility properties of the solvent
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: sodium azide (TA 100, TA1535), 9-aminoacridine (TA 1537), 2-nitrofluorene (TA 98), mitomycin C (TA 102)
Remarks:
without metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Remarks:
with metabolic activation (rat liver S9 mix)
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene (TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 102), congo red (TA 98)
Remarks:
with metabolic activation (hamster liver S9 mix)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION:
- plate incorporation assay with induced rat liver S9 mix (10% (v/v); induction with Aroclor 1254)
- preincubation assay with uninduced hamster liver S9 mix (30% (v/v))

DURATION
- Preincubation period: 20 to 30 minutes at 30 °C
- Exposure duration: at least 48 hours

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 3 plates per strain and dose level, including controls

Evaluation criteria:
A test compound is classified as mutagenic if it has either of the following effects:
- it produces at least a 2-fold increase in the mean number of revertants per plate of at least one of the tester strains over the mean number of revertants per plate of the appropriate vehicle control at complete bacterial background lawn
- it induces a dose-related increase in the mean number of revertants per plate of at least one of the tester strains over the mean number of revertants per plate of the appropriate vehicle control in at least two to three concentrations of the test compound at complete bacterial background lawn
Statistics:
Arithmetic means and standard deviation of the counted colonies were calculated, as well as the respective dose/control ratio.
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Precipitation:
visible precipitation of the test item:
- plate incorporation test: at 50 µg/plate and above
- preincubation test: with S9-mix at 500 µg/plate and above and without S9-mix at 160 µg/plate and above

COMPARISON WITH HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA: there were no deviations observed

Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

The test item showed no mutagenic activity in both experiments (plate incorporation assay, preincubation assay) each with and without metabolic activation.

Conclusions:
negative

The test item did not exert mutagenic activity in the reverse bacterial mutation assay (plate incorporation assay and preincubation assay according to Prival) with and without metabolic activation.
Executive summary:

Mutagenic activity of the test item was investigated in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA98, TA100 and TA 102 with (induced rat liver S9 mix) and without metabolic activation at concentrations of 50, 160, 500, 1600, and 5000 µg/plate using the plate incorporation assay. Due to the test items characteristic as an azo-dye the test was also conducted using the Prival modification, i.e. testing the above mentioned bacterial strains in the preincubation assay with uninduced hamster liver S9 mix for metabolic activation. This test was performed using the concentrations 50, 160, 500, 1600, and 5000 µg/plate.

The test item did not reveal any mutagenic activity under the conditions tested. The appropriate reference mutagenes showed distinct positive mutagenic effects.

Endpoint:
in vitro cytogenicity / chromosome aberration study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
year of publication: 1984
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Principles of method if other than guideline:
in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test: NTP-Chinese hamster Ovary Cell Cytogenetics
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 mix from Aroclor 1254-induced male Sprague Dawley rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
1.6, 5, 16, 50, 160 µg/ml without metabolic activation (highest concentration not evaluated)
0.5, 1.6, 5, 16, 50 µg/ml with metabolic activation (highest concentration not evaluated)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
cyclophosphamide
Remarks:
with metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
mitomycin C
Remarks:
without metabolic activation
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 8-12 h without metabolic activation; 2 h with metabolic activation
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): 10 h (with metabolic activation)
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent): 2 h
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): up to 12 h


SPINDLE INHIBITOR (cytogenetic assays): colcemid
STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): Giemsa


NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: no data


NUMBER OF CELLS EVALUATED: 100 first-division metaphase cells; only 50 first-division metaphase cells for the second dose of the positive control Mitomycin C


OTHER EXAMINATIONS:
- "simple" aberrations: breaks and terminal deletions
- complex" aberrations: rearrangements and translocations
- "other" aberrations: pulverized cells, despiralized chromosomes, cells containing 10 or more aberrations

Evaluation criteria:
For a positive response the presence of a dose-response and the significance of the individual dose points compared to the vehicle control were mandatory.
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid

Frequency of effects:

Without metabolic activation:

1, 1, 2, 2% cells with aberrations at 1.6, 5.0, 16 and 50 µg/ml, respectively; DMSO control: 1%

With metabolic activation:

2, 1, 4, 0% cells with aberrations at 0,5, 1.6, 5.0 and 16 µg/ml, respectively; DMSO control: 1%

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The test item Diarylanilide yellow did not induce chromosome aberrations under the conditions tested.
Executive summary:

Induction of chromosome aberrations by the test item has been investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro in the presence (induced rat liver S9) and absence of metabolic activation. The test item did not induce chromosome aberrations in tests concentrations up to 16 µg/ml (with metabolic activation) or 50 µg/ml (without metabolic activation) under these test conditions.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
From 19 JUN 2002 to 27 JUN 2002
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.5100 - Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test (August 1998)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
rat liver S9, hamster liver S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
50, 160, 500, 1600, 5000 µg/plate
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: sodium azide (TA 100, TA1535), 9-aminoacridine (TA 1537), 2-nitrofluorene (TA 98), mitomycin C (TA 102)
Remarks:
without metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Remarks:
with metabolic activation (rat liver S9)
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene (TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 102), congo red (TA 98)
Remarks:
with metabolic activation (hamster liver S9)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION:
- plate incorporation assay with induced rat liver S9 mix (10% (v/v); induction with Aroclor 1254)
- preincubation assay with uninduced hamster liver S9 mix (30% (v/v))

DURATION
- Preincubation period: 20 to 30 minutes at 30 °C
- Exposure duration: at least 48 hours

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 3 plates per strain and dose level, including controls
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Precipitation: visible precipitation of the test item was observed at 50 µg/plate and above.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

The test item showed no mutagenic activity in both experiments (plate incorporation assay and preincubation assay according to Prival) with and without metabolic activation.

Conclusions:
negative

The test item did not exert mutagenic activity in the reverse bacterial mutation assay (plate incorporation assay and preincubation assay according to Prival) with and without metabolic activation.
The results of this study are in accordance with the findings of the key study.
Executive summary:

Mutagenic activity of the test item was investigated in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA98, TA100 and TA 102 with (induced rat liver S9 mix) and without metabolic activation at concentrations of 50, 160, 500, 1600, and 5000 µg/plate using the plate incorporation assay. Due to the test items characteristic as an azo-dye the test was also conducted using the Prival modification, i.e. testing the above mentioned bacterial strains in the preincubation assay with uninduced hamster liver S9 mix for metabolic activation. This test was performed using the concentrations 50, 160, 500, 1600, and 5000 µg/plate.

The test item did not reveal any mutagenic activity under the conditions tested. The appropriate reference mutagenes showed distinct positive mutagenic effects.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
no data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Mouse Lymphoma Study
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay
Target gene:
thymidine kinase locus
Species / strain / cell type:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from the livers of either Aroclor 1254-induced or non-induced male Fischer 344 rats
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 µg/ml (Nonactivation Trial 1)
0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 (Nonactivation Trial 2; Induced S9 Trial 1, 2, 3)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: methylmethanesulfonate, ethylmethanesulphonate
Remarks:
without metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
3-methylcholanthrene
Remarks:
with metabolic activation
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 4 h
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): 48 h
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent): 10-12 days


SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): trifluorothymidine


NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: all treatment levels within an experiment were performed in duplicate; experiments were performed twice (nonactivated) or in triplicate (S9)


DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: cloning efficiency
Statistics:
statistical analysis for trend and peak responses
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested

- results without metabolic activation were negative in two replicates, the tested concentrations were non-toxic

Trial 1 (mean mutant frequency): 36, 40, 44, 40 and 46 at 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 31

Trial 2 (mean mutant frequency): 30, 30, 45, 38 and 37 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 30

- with metabolic activation one trial revealed increased mutant frequencies at concentrations >/= 0.2 µg/ml in comparison to the vehicle control, but without dose response relationship; in two further trials negative responses were observed

Trial 1 (mean mutant frequency): 25, 61, 68, 69 and 62 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 30

Trial 2 (mean mutant frequency): 48, 57, 62, 61 and 60 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 54

Trial 3 (mean mutant frequency): 79, 68, 76, 94 and 88 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 71

- solvent and positve controls were within the normal range

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The test item did not induce mammalian cell gene mutations under the conditions tested.

Executive summary:

Induction of mammalian cell gene mutations in vitro has been investigated in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells in the presence (rat liver S9) and absence of metabolic activation. The test item did not induce gene mutations in concentrations up to 0.5 µg/ml under the tested conditions.

Endpoint:
in vitro cytogenicity / chromosome aberration study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
See justification document in chapter 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid

Frequency of effects:

Without metabolic activation:

1, 1, 2, 2% cells with aberrations at 1.6, 5.0, 16 and 50 µg/ml, respectively; DMSO control: 1%

With metabolic activation:

2, 1, 4, 0% cells with aberrations at 0,5, 1.6, 5.0 and 16 µg/ml, respectively; DMSO control: 1%

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The test item Diarylanilide yellow did not induce chromosome aberrations under the conditions tested.
Executive summary:

Induction of chromosome aberrations by the test item has been investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro in the presence (induced rat liver S9) and absence of metabolic activation. The test item did not induce chromosome aberrations in tests concentrations up to 16 µg/ml (with metabolic activation) or 50 µg/ml (without metabolic activation) under these test conditions.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
See justification document in chapter 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested

- results without metabolic activation were negative in two replicates, the tested concentrations were non-toxic

Trial 1 (mean mutant frequency): 36, 40, 44, 40 and 46 at 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 31

Trial 2 (mean mutant frequency): 30, 30, 45, 38 and 37 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 30

- with metabolic activation one trial revealed increased mutant frequencies at concentrations >/= 0.2 µg/ml in comparison to the vehicle control, but without dose response relationship; in two further trials negative responses were observed

Trial 1 (mean mutant frequency): 25, 61, 68, 69 and 62 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 30

Trial 2 (mean mutant frequency): 48, 57, 62, 61 and 60 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 54

Trial 3 (mean mutant frequency): 79, 68, 76, 94 and 88 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 71

- solvent and positve controls were within the normal range

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The test item did not induce mammalian cell gene mutations under the conditions tested.

Executive summary:

Induction of mammalian cell gene mutations in vitro has been investigated in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells in the presence (rat liver S9) and absence of metabolic activation. The test item did not induce gene mutations in concentrations up to 0.5 µg/ml under the tested conditions.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
See justification document in chapter 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity, but tested up to precipitating concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity, but tested up to precipitating concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity, but tested up to precipitating concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity, but tested up to precipitating concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity, but tested up to precipitating concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Conclusions:
not mutagenic
Endpoint:
in vitro cytogenicity / chromosome aberration study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
See justification document in chapter 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Key result
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid

Frequency of effects:

Without metabolic activation:

1, 1, 2, 2% cells with aberrations at 1.6, 5.0, 16 and 50 µg/ml, respectively; DMSO control: 1%

With metabolic activation:

2, 1, 4, 0% cells with aberrations at 0,5, 1.6, 5.0 and 16 µg/ml, respectively; DMSO control: 1%

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The test item Diarylanilide yellow did not induce chromosome aberrations under the conditions tested.
Executive summary:

Induction of chromosome aberrations by the test item has been investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro in the presence (induced rat liver S9) and absence of metabolic activation. The test item did not induce chromosome aberrations in tests concentrations up to 16 µg/ml (with metabolic activation) or 50 µg/ml (without metabolic activation) under these test conditions.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
See justification document in chapter 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested

- results without metabolic activation were negative in two replicates, the tested concentrations were non-toxic

Trial 1 (mean mutant frequency): 36, 40, 44, 40 and 46 at 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 31

Trial 2 (mean mutant frequency): 30, 30, 45, 38 and 37 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 30

- with metabolic activation one trial revealed increased mutant frequencies at concentrations >/= 0.2 µg/ml in comparison to the vehicle control, but without dose response relationship; in two further trials negative responses were observed

Trial 1 (mean mutant frequency): 25, 61, 68, 69 and 62 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 30

Trial 2 (mean mutant frequency): 48, 57, 62, 61 and 60 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 54

Trial 3 (mean mutant frequency): 79, 68, 76, 94 and 88 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 µg/ml; DMSO control: 71

- solvent and positve controls were within the normal range

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The test item did not induce mammalian cell gene mutations under the conditions tested.

Executive summary:

Induction of mammalian cell gene mutations in vitro has been investigated in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells in the presence (rat liver S9) and absence of metabolic activation. The test item did not induce gene mutations in concentrations up to 0.5 µg/ml under the tested conditions.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Mode of Action Analysis / Human Relevance Framework

There is no evidence for species specific effects of the substance. Therefore, the results of the in vitro/in vivo data are regarded as relevant for humans.

Additional information

Justification for classification or non-classification

Due to the negative findings in the mutagenicity assays in vitro and in consideration that it is unlikely to become bioavailable after oral, dermal and inhalation exposure Pigment Yellow 83 is not classified as germ cell mutagen according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008.