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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented study.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Three species of crop plant B. rapa, A. sativa, and S. alba, were grown in soil containing concentrations of LAS that varied from 0 -10,000 mg/kg dw soil. The seedlings were grown for 14 days, and then weighed. The weight was compared to weights of controls plants.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: oats
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: turnip or field mustard
Species:
Sinapis alba
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: mustard
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: soil, not specified
Total exposure duration:
14 d
pH:
6.1
Moisture:
23.2 g/100 g soil
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): self-watering pots
- Amount of soil: 70 g

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 54.3
- % silt: 35.7
- % clay: 9.9
- Soil classification system: sandy loam soil
- Organic carbon (%): 1.3
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth): 23.2 g/100 g soil


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : shoot fresh weight at 14 days
Nominal and measured concentrations:
9 concentrations from 0 - 10,000 mg/kg soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
80 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
86 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Sinapis alba
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
300 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Sinapis alba
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
300 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1 641 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
There was a steep dose-response curve in all species.
Conclusions:
The EC10 for B. rapa was 86 mg/kg dw soil, for A. sativa it was 80 mg/kg dw soil, and for S. alba it was 200 mg/kg soil.
Executive summary:

Three species of crop plant B. rapa, A. sativa, and S. alba, were grown in soil containing concentrations of LAS that varied from 0 -10,000 mg/kg dw soil. The seedlings were grown for 14 days, and then weighed. The weight was compared to weights of controls plants. All three species showed a dose-related reduction in growth. The EC10 for B. rapa was 86 mg/kg dw soil, for A. sativa it was 80 mg/kg dw soil, and for S. alba it was 200 mg/kg dw soil.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
April 23, 1987-June 8, 1987
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented GLP study.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
% particles less than 20 µg not given; 4.1% instead of maximum 3% organic carbon in the test soil; sand was sieved with 1 mm mesh instead of 0.5 mm mesh; weight and variability of seeds not reported.
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
The test was conducted in an artificial soil consisting of commercially available potting compost (WC-B) and washed, sieved (1 mm mesh), dried (temperature and time not reported) silver sand (1:9 potting soil:washed sand).
Species:
Sorghum bicolor
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: sorghum
- Variety: Dekalb 64
- Source of seed: Dekalk, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): viability of at least 80%
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: sunflower
- Variety: Rodeo
- Source of seed: Codasal, France
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): viability of at least 80%
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: mung bean
- Source of seed: Clause Seeds, UK
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): viability of at least 80%
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
11-37 degrees C
pH:
6.8-7.9
Moisture:
11.9%
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: Jealott's Hill Greenhouse Number 130/2
- Test container (type, material, size): 10-cm diameter, non-porous plastic plant pots, capacity of approx. 600 g
- Amount of soil: ~600 g
- No. of seeds per container: 8
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: at least 14 hrs
- Light source: if natural sunlight was poor, mercury vapor lamps were used
- Light intensity and quality: 5,000 lux
- Watering regime and schedules: capillary matting sub-irrigation system, twice daily

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : seedling emergence
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg active ingredient in dry soil
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: all 3
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Sorghum bicolor
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
167 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
289 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
316 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Sorghum bicolor
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
68 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
116 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
126 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
There was 91% emergence of sunflowers at all concentrations. Mung bean emergence was at least 84% at concentrations of 100 mg/kg AI or below. At 1000 mg/kg AI, emergence was only 75%. Seed emergence was 78-84% in sorghum for controls and all concentrations but the highest. At 1,000 mg/kg AI, emergence was only 69%. At the 1000 mg/kg AI concentration, sunflowers and mung beans barely emerged, and showed signs of dying. Sorghum shoots at this concentration were healthy but stunted. The low emergence in mung beans may be due to a cold spell early in the test.

Number (Percent) of Plants Emerged at Day 7

Species

Control

1 mg/kg

10 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

1000 mg/kg

Sorghum

26 (81)

27 (84)

27 (84)

25 (78)

22 (69)

Sunflower

30 (94)

32 (100)

30 (94)

32 (100)

29 (91)

Mung bean

31 (97)

27 (84)

30 (94)

27 (84)

24 (75)

Conclusions:
The NOEC for all three species is 100 mg/kg AI. The 21-day EC50 for sunflower was 289 mg/kg AI, for sorghum it was 167 mg/kg AI, and for mung bean it was 316 mg/kg AI.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of the test substance to three species of plant, sunflower, sorghum, and mung bean, was determined. Seeds of these three species were grown in soil containing concentrations of the test ingredient of 0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg active ingredient in dry soil. The emergence and growth of seedlings was monitored for 21 days. There was a decrease in emergence of all three species at the highest concentration, with some shoots barely emerging, and stunted and dying. The NOEC for all three species is 100 mg/kg AI. The 21-day EC50 for sunflower was 289 mg/kg AI, for sorghum it was 167 mg/kg AI, and for mung bean it was 316 mg/kg AI.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented publication.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
7 plants per pot instead of the standard 5.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no data
Species:
other: Malva pusilla
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Plant family: Malvaceae
- Source of seed: Botanischen Garten von Dresden, Karlsruche, and Dresden
Species:
other: Solanum nigrum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: black nightshade
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: L. emend.
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Species:
other: Chenopodium album
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Pigweed
- Plant family: Amaranthaceae
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Species:
other: Amaranthus retroflexus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Pigweed
- Plant family: Amaranthaceae
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Species:
other: Nigella arvensis
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: wild fennel
- Plant family: Ranunculaceae
- Source of seed: Botanischen Garten von Halle und Karlsruhe
Species:
other: Galinsoga parviflora
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Quickweed
- Plant family: Asteraceae
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: turnip or field mustard
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Test temperature:
no data
pH:
no data
Moisture:
70% of maximum
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): pots
- Amount of soil: 200 ml
- Method of seeding: germinated in petri dishes
- No. of seeds per container: 7

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- % sand: 49.5
- % silt: 39.0
- % clay: 11.6
- Organic carbon (%): 0.99

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : growth

Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: control, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg dw
Species:
other: Malva pusilla
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
204 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Solanum nigrum
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
169 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Chenopodium album
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
164 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Amaranthus retroflexus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
142 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Nigella arvensis
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
133 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Galinsoga parviflora
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
90 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
164 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Malva pusilla
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
110 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Solanum nigrum
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
120 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Chenopodium album
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
120 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Amaranthus retroflexus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
110 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Nigella arvensis
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
52 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
other: Galinsoga parviflora
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
55 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Conclusions:
The 14-day EC50 for various plant species ranged from 90-204 mg/kg dw.
Executive summary:

Plants from seven different species, Malva pusilla, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Nigella arvensis, Galinsoga parviflora, and Brassica rapa, were exposed to concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg dw of LAS. Plants were exposed for 14 days, after which their weights were determined. The following EC50s were found:

Malva pusilla 204 mg/kg dw, Solanum nigrum 169 mg/kg dw, Chenopodium album 164 mg/kg dw, Amaranthus retroflexus 142 mg/kg dw, Nigella arvensis 133 mg/kg dw, Galinsoga parviflora 90 mg/kg dw, and Brassica rapa 164 mg/kg dw.

The following EC10s were found: Malva pusilla 110 mg/kg dw, Solanum nigrum 120 mg/kg dw, Chenopodium album 120 mg/kg dw, Amaranthus retroflexus 110 mg/kg dw, Nigella arvensis 52 mg/kg dw, Galinsoga parviflora 55 mg/kg dw, and Brassica rapa 86 mg/kg dw.

Description of key information

As part of a complete assessment of terrestrial toxicity to LAS, Jensen et al. (2007) summarized available data on responses of non-crop and agricultural crop species. These are shown in Table 39. Growth was universally the most sensitive endpoint and in all the experiments, LAS was added as an aqueous solution resulting in maximum bioavailability. Three blocks of studies were conducted on crop and non-crop plants. The first group of studies on crop plants by Windeat (1987) exposed sorghum, sunflower and mung bean to LAS at 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg soil. EC10s ranged from 68-126 mg/kg soil and EC50s ranged from 167-316 mg/kg soil. The second group of studies by Günther and Pestemer (1992) on oat and mustard species involved exposures from 0-10,000 mg/kg soil. The last group of studies, mostly on non crop species, by Marschner (1992) were derived from exposing plants up to 1000 mg/kg resulting in EC10 values that ranged from 55-120 mg/kg and EC50 values of 90-204 mg/kg.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information