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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1978-05-01 to 1978-08-01
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Followed guideline, well documented, with analytical.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US EPA, 1975. Reliability, deviations and validity evaluated against the criteria of USEPA 850.1075, 1996.
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study pre-dates GLPs
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Water samples for determination of test concentrations were collected at the beginning and end of each test.
- Sampling method: Samples were preserved with 1% formalin.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared by diluting the materials in deionized water to the desired concentrations.
- Eluate: Not applicable
- Differential loading: Not applicable
- Controls: Prepared using deionized water.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Not applicable
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) including control(s)): Not applicable
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Bluegill
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Not available
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Juvenile
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): Mean standard length: 4.2 cm, range: 3.0-5.1 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Average: 1.1 g, range: 0.5-1.9 g
- Method of breeding: Not available
- Feeding during test: Not fed
- Food type: Not applicable
- Amount: Not applicable
- Frequency: Not applicable


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: At least 10 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Not available
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available


QUARANTINE (wild caught)
- Duration: Not applicable
- Health/mortality: Not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
Total hardness was 137 mg/L as CaCO3.
Test temperature:
Temperature was maintained at 20 ± 2 °C.
pH:
The pH varied from 7.8 to 8.1.
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen in the fish tests averaged 9.0 (ranged 8.4-9.6) mg/L.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Details of nominal and measured test concentrations are not available in the study report. Measured concentrations were 79 % of nominal concentrations. Results are based on measured concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): open / closed: Not available
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 15 liter glass aquaria containing 10 liters of dilution water.
- Aeration: Not available
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): Not applicable
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): Not applicable
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 1.1 g/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was a blend of well water and deionized water, mixed to the desired hardness.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: 10 heavy metals were measured, all were <0.2 mg/L. See report.
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: Not available
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Dissolved oxygen, pH and hardness were monitored twice during the test.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hours illumination
- Light intensity: Not available


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Fish mortality recorded 1, 3 and 5 hours after test initiation, and daily until test termination.


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: Not available
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: Not applicable
- Range finding study: No
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 1.58-1.77mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: None
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: None
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: None
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Probit analysis of all mortality data in this study followed the procedures of Finney (1971).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
All the criteria of USEPA OPPTS 850.1075, 1996 were met
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 of C11.8 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) was 1.67 mg/L, based on mean measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 96 h acute toxicity study, Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to C11.8 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, an anionic surfactant) under static conditions. Nominal concentrations were not specified in the report. Measured concentrations were 79 % of nominal concentrations.

The 96 h LC50 value, based on measured concentration, was 1.67 mg a.i./L, with 95% CL 1.58 to 1.77 mg/L.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for the current USEPA OPPTS 850.1075 (1996) acute fish toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Because of the shorter than normal study duration and smaller than standard number of fish per concentration, the reliability of the absolute values cannot be assessed. However, the study is considered reliable for the trends in the data because the homologues were tested under identical conditions.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EPA-660/3-75-009 1975. Method for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute toxicity tests were conducted on high molecular weight LAS, individual pure homologues, non-linear LAS components (dialkyl tetralin or indane sulfonates, DTIS), and model biodegradation intermediates (sulfophenylundecane, SOU) in order to determine whether biodegradation decreases toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted in 5 L of 100 mg/L hardness water using 5 fathead minnows per concentration.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
open-system
Hardness:
5 L of 100 mg/L hardness water
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.7 mg/L

Fathead minnow LC50 (mg/L)

Average chain length

24 hour

48 hour

High molecular weight LAS

13.3

1.9

1.7

Individual homologues LAS

C10

10

48.0

43.0

C11

11

17.0

16.0

C12

12

4.7

4.7

C13

13

1.7

0.4

C14

14

0.6

0.4

Nonlinear LAS components (DTIS)

C10

10

87.0 ± 7.5

86.1 ± 15.0

C12

12

24.8 ± 5.8

21.5 ± 5.5

C14

14

8.1 ± 5.1

5.3 ± 3.9

Model biodegradation intermediates

C4 (SØ Butyrate)

4

~10,000

~10,000

C5 (SØ Valerate)

5

~10,000

~10,000

C11 (SØU)

11

85.9 ± 5.1*

76.6 ± 12.4*

*Subsequent repurification of this sample yielded a product with the same isomeric composition but with LC50 values over 1000 mg/L for fatheads.

Description of key information

Two key studies are presented to characterize the potential aquatic toxicity of LAS. In a 96-hour acute toxicity study (Lewis and Perry 1979, 1981), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to C11.8LAS under static conditions. The measured concentrations were 79 % of nominal concentrations but were not reported. The 96 hour LC50 value, based on measured concentrations, was 1.67 mg a.i./L. In a second study (Kimerle and Swisher 1977), 48 hour acute toxicity tests with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were conducted on high molecular weight LAS, individual pure homologues, non-linear LAS components (dialkyl tetralin or indane sulfonates, DTIS), and model biodegradation intermediates (sulfophenylundecane, SOU) in order to determine whether biodegradation decreases toxicity. All of the toxicity tests were conducted in 5 L of 100 mg/L hardness water using 5 fathead minnows per concentration. Results indicated that the length of the alkyl chain is the most important factor influencing acute toxicity, which increases as the alkyl chain increases. These longer alkyl chain homologues are the first constituents of the LAS mixture to degrade. The nonlinear components (DTIS) showed 1/2 to 1/10 the toxicity of LAS with the same carbon chain length. Therefore, toxicity of biodegradation intermediates is significantly less than the parent LAS.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
1.67 mg/L

Additional information