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Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented journal article.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 11267 (Inhibition of Reproduction of Collembola by Soil Pollutants)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Predacious mite test: No internationally accepted guideline is available for mite reproduction. Effects on reproduction on the predacious mite (H. aculeifer) were examined according to a method described by Krogh and Axelsen. Ten female and five male H. aculeifer (16-19 days old) were added to each test container together with 100 F. fimetaria (16-19 days old) serving as prey for the mites. Incubation and extraction of mite offspring followed the same procedure as described for springtails.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Springtail: Twenty-seven grams dry weight of soil were mixed with 3 mL of LAS solution and filled into cylindrical test containers with lids. The bottom of the cylinder consisting of a 1-mm mesh to allow later extraction of the test animals. The mesh was covered with a layer of plastic film to prevent escape of the test animals.
Mite: A total of 54 g dry weight of soil was mixed with 6 mL of LAS solution and filled into test containers (as described for springtails).
Test organisms (species):
other: Folsomia fimetaria, Hypogastrura assimilis, Hypoaspis aculeifer
Animal group:
other: soil-dwelling
Details on test organisms:
Springtail: Adult, rather than juvenile, springtails were used. Ten male and ten female F. fimetaria (23-26 days old)
Mite: Ten female and five male H. aculeifer (16-19 days old)
Study type:
other: no data
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Details on test conditions:
A natural sandy, agricultural soil was used for all tests, rather than synthetic test soil.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Springtail: The test concentrations were not listed but can be estimated from Figure 6 to be 0, 10, 25, 75, 275, and 800, with the numbers of adult surviving per replicate to be approximately 145, 155, 115, 110, 165, and 165 and the numbers of juveniles per replicate (reproduction) to be approximately 285, 275, 190, 145, 205, and 10.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
82 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Hypoaspis aculeifer
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Hypogastrura assimilis
Details on results:
It should be noted that these studies report worst case exposures due to the use of a sandy test soil and the fact that LAS was added as an aqueous solution to the soil. In addition, too few replicates were used for the ECx approach (e.g., <5 controls) and several key deviations from draft protocols limited the reliability of endpoints for some studies (e.g., A. caliginosa and A. longa cocoon production). Nominal concentrations were derived from tables and figures since actual values were not found in the text.

The following table shows the results of all tests.  All values are nominal LAS concentrations in mg/kg dry weight.

Species

Parameter

NOEC

LOEC

LC10 or EC10

LC50 or EC50

Relia-bility Rating

Rationale for Reliability Rating

Enchytraeus albidus

Survival, adults

Reproduction

198

20

397

40

194

6

430

41

1

1

Draft ISO/WD 16387 protocol

Aporrectodea caliginosa

Survival, adults

Cocoon production

Survival, juveniles

Growth, juveniles

278

>793

>397

278

793

>793

>397

397

329

14

>397

105

535

129

>397

354

2

3

2

2

Comparable to

ISO 11268-2

Deviations; limited cocoons

Comparable to ISO 11268-2, but with only weight measurement

Aporrectodea longa

Survival, adults

Cocoon production

Survival, juveniles

Growth, juveniles

278

>793

397

79

793

>793

793

278

329

27

296

84

535

137

517

349

2

3

2

2

Comparable to

 ISO 11268-2

Deviations; limited cocoons

Comparable to ISO 11268-2, but with only weight measurement

Folsomia fimetaria

Survival, adults

Reproduction

>793

278

>793

278

>793

85

>793

424

1

1

Comparable to  ISO 11267

Hypogastrura assimilis

Reproduction

79

278

99

421

1

Comparable to  ISO 11267

Hypoaspis aculeifer

Survival, adults

Reproduction

>793

278

>793

793

>793

82

>793

236

2

2

No guideline available

Conclusions:
The EC10 for H. assimilis was 100 mg/kg dry weight, and the EC10 for H. aculeifer was 82 mg/kg dry weight.
Executive summary:

Groups of H. assimilis and H. aculeifer were exposed to various concentrations of test material for 21 days. At the end of this period, the number of offspring were counted. Based on reproduction, The EC10 for H. assimilis was 100 mg/kg dry weight, and the EC10 for H. aculeifer was 82 mg/kg dry weight.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented, peer-reviewed publication.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The toxicity of LAS to soil dwelling organisms was tested in three soil types. Various LAS salts (Na, Ca, and Mg) were tested in one soil type (sandy) to determine the effection of speciation to toxicity. In each test, 10 male and 10 female organisms were placed in containers with test substance added to the soil. Exposure lasted 21 days, at the end of which the number of adult and juvenile organisms were counted.
GLP compliance:
no
Application method:
soil
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
30 g soil samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analysis.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Acetone was used in the Ca-LAS and Mg-LAS tests as these compounds are insoluble in water.
Test organisms (species):
Folsomia sp.
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 23-26 days

Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH (if soil or dung study):
5.5-5.8
Photoperiod and lighting:
12:12 photoperiod
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 5.5 x 6 cm cylindrical containers
- Amount of soil or substrate: 30 g moist soil
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10 male/10 female

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Lundgaard
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 66.9 coarse, 15.8 fine
- % silt: 8.6
- % clay: 6.2

- Soil classification system: sandy soil
- Organic carbon (%): 1.5
- CEC: 3.23 mEq/100 g
- Pretreatment of soil: dried at 80 degrees C, and sifted through 2 mm mesh


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Askov
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 38.4 coarse, 23.6 fine
- % silt: 22.3
- % clay: 13.0

- Soil classification system: loamy soil
- Organic carbon (%): 1.6
- CEC: 8.14 mEq/100 g
- Pretreatment of soil: dried at 80 degrees C, and sifted through 2 mm mesh
OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12:12


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Flakkebjerg
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 23.4 coarse, 25.5 fine
- % silt: 34.2
- % clay: 15.1

- Soil classification system: clay soil
- Organic carbon (%): 1.0
- CEC: 10.16 mEq/100 g
- Pretreatment of soil: dried at 80 degrees C, and sifted through 2 mm mesh

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : number of surviving adults and juveniles counted on day 21
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 8, 28, 79, 278, 793 mg/kg dry weigth measured
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
85 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Na-LAS in sandy soil
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
93 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Na-LAS in clay soil
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
87 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Na-LAS in sandy soil
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
106 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Ca-LAS in sandy soil
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
97 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Mg-LAS in sandy soil
Details on results:
Soil type had little effect on the toxicity of Na-LAS to soil organisms. Salt speciation also had little effect on toxicity.
Conclusions:
The EC10 for Folsomia fimetaria in various soils ranged from 85-93 mg/kg dry weight soil.
Executive summary:

Groups of 10 male and 10 female Folsomia fimetaria were exposed to various concentrations of Na-LAS in three different soil types for 21 days. At the end of this period, the number of adult and juvenile organisms was counted. Another test was done to compare the toxicity of three LAS salts, Na, Ca, and Mg, in one soil type (sandy). There was little variation in toxicity among the three soil types and in the three salt species. The EC10 for Folsomia fimetaria in various soils ranged from 85-93 mg/kg dry weight soil.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented, peer-reviewed publication.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 11267 (Inhibition of Reproduction of Collembola by Soil Pollutants)
GLP compliance:
no
Application method:
soil
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Initial concentrations were measured.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
LAS was mixed in demineralized water, and then added to dry Askov soil. Fresh sludge (approx. 200 g) was freeze-dried. This was crushed and sieved through a 2 mm sieve. A methanol solution of LAS was then added to the sludge.
Test organisms (species):
Folsomia candida
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: permanent laboratory cultures
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 10-12 days

Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Amount of soil or substrate: 26 g soil mixed with 4 ml test solution
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Askov
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 76
- % silt: 12
- % clay: 11
- Soil classification system: sandy loam
- Organic carbon (%):1.3
- CEC: 13.4

Nominal and measured concentrations:
25-300 mg/kg soil
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
205 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
Reproduction was not significantly affected, but an indicative EC10 was estimated at 205 mg/kg soil.
Conclusions:
The EC10 for Folsomia candida based on reproduction was 205 mg/kg soil.
Executive summary:

Groups of F. candida were exposed to concentrations of 25-300 mg LAS/kg soil. Exposure lasted 28 days, after which adult survival and reproductive parameters were examined. The EC10 based on reproduction was 205 mg/kg soil.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented, peer-reviewed journal article.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Wiles, JA, and Krogh, PH (1998). Test with the collembolans Isotoma viridis, Folsomia candida and Folsomia fimetaria. In Handbook of Soil Invertebrate Toxicity Tests (H. Lokke and C.A.M. van Gestel, Eds.), pp. 131-156. Wiley, Baffins, West Sussex, Eng.
GLP compliance:
no
Application method:
soil
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
no information
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
LAS was dissolved in water, and added to soil so that water content equaled 50% of the water-holding capacity.
Test organisms (species):
Folsomia sp.
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Danish National Environmental Research Institute
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): adults
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 10-30 ug, 0.8-1.4 mm


Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
20 +/- 1 degree C
pH (if soil or dung study):
6.2
Photoperiod and lighting:
400-800 lux for 12/12 hrs
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 5.5 cm high x 6 cm diamter plastic cylinders with 1 mm mesh at bottom
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10 male/10 female
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Askov
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 62
- % silt: 22.3
- % clay: 13.0
- Soil classification system: sandy loam
- Organic carbon (%): 1.6
- CEC: 8.14 meq/100 g soil
- Pretreatment of soil: dried at 80 degrees C for 24 hrs and sieved through a 2-mm mesh

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12/12
- Light intensity: 400-800 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : number of organims

Nominal and measured concentrations:
control, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg soil dry weight
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
161 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
50% mortality was not seen even at the highest concentration tested (800 mg/kg soil dw).
Conclusions:
The EC10 for Folsomia fimetaria was 161 mg/kg soil dw.
Executive summary:

Groups of 10 male and 10 female Folsomia fimetaria were exposed to nominal concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg soil dw of LAS for 21 days. At the end of this period, the number of organisms were counted. The EC10 for F. fimetaria was 161 mg/kg soil dw based on reproduction.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented, peer-reviewed publication.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Groups of 10 male and 10 female F. fimetaria were exposed to concentrations of LAS ranging from 0 -1000 mg/kg dw soil for 21 days. At the end of the 21 days, the number of F. fimetaria were counted, and the number of surviving adults and juveniles as the result of reproduction were counted.
GLP compliance:
no
Application method:
soil
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were taken 2, 17, and 31 days after the soil was spiked.
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
LAS was dissolved in water and mixed with 30 g moist soil (25.5 g dry). The mixture was prepared immediately before the experiment.
Test organisms (species):
Folsomia sp.
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: laboratory culture
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 23-26 days
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD):
Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH (if soil or dung study):
5.5
Photoperiod and lighting:
12 hrs light/12 hrs dark
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Amount of soil or substrate: 30 g moist
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10 male/10 female
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Speyer, Germany
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 34.8
- % silt: 5.6
- % clay: 5.2
- % gravel: 54.6
- Organic carbon (%): 2.3
- Pretreatment of soil: dried at 80 degrees C
- Storage (condition, duration): 5 degrees C

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12/12 hrs

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : survival and reproduction at 21 days of exposure measured using digital image processing
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0-1000 mg/kg dry soil
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
147 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: 116-178
Details on results:
Adult survival was unaffected at all concentrations. Reproductive output decreased linearly with increasing concentration, with 430 juveniles produced in control containers, to only 150 juveniles produced at the highest concentration (1000 mg/kg dw soil).
Conclusions:
The 21-day EC10 for F. fimetaria was 147 mg/kg dw soil based on reproduction.
Executive summary:

Groups of 10 male and 10 female F. fimetaria were exposed to concentrations of LAS ranging from 0 -1000 mg/kg dw soil for 21 days. At the end of the 21 days, the number of F. fimetaria were counted, and the number of surviving adults and juveniles as the result of reproduction were counted. There was no effect on adult survival, however, there was a dose-related decrease in reproduction. The EC10 based on reproduction was 147 mg/kg dw soil.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well reported published study.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Groups of 20 P. Peltifer mites were exposed to various concentrations of LAS up to 1000 mg/kg dw soil. The exposure lasted 10 weeks. The mortality and reproduction of the mites at the end of this period was assessed.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
soil
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil: Test substance was dissolved in a suitable amount of water and thoroughly mixed into test substrate.
- Controls: Controls were treated similarly to test containers, but without test substance.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): water
Test organisms (species):
other: Platynothrus peltifer
Animal group:
other: soil-dwelling
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: oribatid mite
- Source: Needle litter from coniferous forest near Roggebotszand, Netherlands
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): adult
- Date of collection: 1993

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: animals used were adults collected as tritonymphs
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Culture pots contained a 1-2 cm layer of plaster of Paris and covered with cheese cloth.
- Feeding: Green algae on smalle pieces of bark from pine twigs.
Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
10 wk
Test temperature:
18-20 degree C
pH (if soil or dung study):
6.0 +/- 0.5
Humidity:
Water content of soil was 30-40% of total water capacity.
Photoperiod and lighting:
12 hrs light/12 hrs dark, ~400 lux
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 5 cm diameter x 3.5 cm high containers. Bottom consists of a 1 mm mesh sealed with plastic foil. The top is covered with a hole covered with cheese cloth to allow aeration.
- Amount of soil or substrate: 75 g (dry weight)
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 20
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 5
- No. of replicates per control: 1

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Soil texture (if natural soil): Lufa 2.2
- % clay: 5.1%
- Organic carbon (%): 3.9%

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12 hrs light/12 hrs dark
- Light intensity: ~400 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : At 2, 6, and 12 weeks after start of exposure, the mites are removed with a Tullgren apparatus and counted. The percentage mortality and number of offspring produced.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg dry soil
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
copper chloride
Duration:
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
320 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: Platynothrus peltifer
Duration:
10 wk
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
The NOEC in LUFA 2.2 soil was 320 mg/kg soil dw based on reproduction.

                                  

Species

Endpoint

NOEC

EC10

EC50

Eisenia foetida

Reproduction

383

558

Lumbricus terrestris

Weight

667

Aporrectodea caliginosa

Reproduction

14

129

Aporrectodea longa

Reproduction

27

137

Folsomia fimetaria

Reproduction

96

442

Folsomia candida

Reproduction

18

91

Hypoaspis aculeifer

Reproduction

81.7

236

Enchytraeus albidus

Reproduction

6.2

40.5

Platynothrus peltifer

Reproduction

320

467

Isotoma viridis

Growth

41

Hypogastrura assimilis

Reproduction

99.8

421

Conclusions:
The NOEC for P. peltifer was 320 mg/kg.
Executive summary:

Groups of 20 P. Peltifer mites were exposed to various concentrations of LAS up to 1000 mg/kg dw soil. The exposure lasted 10 weeks. The mortality and reproduction of the mites at the end of this period was assessed. The NOEC for P. peltifer, based on reproduction was 320 mg/kg dw soil. The LOEC was 1000 mg/kg dw soil.

Description of key information

A series of studies have been conducted on soil macroorganisms that include or exclude arthropods. The primary route of entry for LAS into the terrestrial environment is land application of sewage sludge intended as an amendment to agricultural lands. A large number of terrestrial ecotoxicology studies were reviewed by Jensen et al. (2007) to develop a European wide risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soils. Nine invertebrate species, three oligochaetes and six arthropods, have been evaluated in chronic toxicity to LAS in soil. Endpoints were all considered sensitive for these taxa. Only growth and reproduction endpoints were used in the PNEC derivation for soil. Effects on oligochaetes (Table 37) and arthropods (Table 38) were highly overlapping.

A European-wide risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soils was developed based on review of terrrestrial ecotoxicology studies. Six arthropods have been evaluated in chronic toxicity studies of LAS in soil. Only growth and reproduction endpoints were used in the PNEC derivation for soil. NOECs or EC10s for arthropods varied from 41-320 mg/kg soil. F. fimeteria had EC10s that ranged from 85-161 mg/kg soil for the reproduction endpoint (most sensitive).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information