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Environmental fate & pathways

Adsorption / desorption

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in soil)
Value in L/kg:
3.47

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in suspended matter)
Value in L/kg:
4.59

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in sediment)
Value in L/kg:
2.94

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in raw sewage sludge)
Value in L/kg:
4.59

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in settled sewage sludge)
Value in L/kg:
4.59

Other adsorption coefficients

Type:
log Kp (solids-water in activated sewage sludge)
Value in L/kg:
4.59

Additional information

Five different partitioning coefficients are derived for Cobalt:

1)      Suspended particulate matter (SPM) freshwater Log Kd

2)      Suspended particulate matter (SPM)seawater Log Kd

3)      Sediment freshwater Log Kd

4)      Sediment seawater Log Kd

5)      Soil Log Kd

The partitioning coefficients used for the derivation of the typical values are summarized in the Tables below.

 Table: SPM- Freshwater environment

Location

Log Kd (L/kg)

Remarks

Reference

Czech rivers

4.43

Median Kd

Veselý J (2001)

River Calder

 

River Nidd

 

River Swale

 

River Trent

 

3.64

4.76

4.28

5.22

4.5

5.68

3.83

4.99

Min value

Max value

Min value

Max value

Min value

Max value

Min value

Max value

Lofts (2000)

Swale (upper river)

Trent River

4.8

4.3

Mean value

Mean value

Tipping (1998)

River Po

2.53

Mean value

Pettine (1994)

Saint Lawrence river

5.7

Mean value

Quèmerais (1996)

Perch lake

7.11

6.73

Mean Kp suspended particle

Mean Kp sediment trap

Diamond (1990)

River Po

3.85

5.46

4.68

Min value

Max value

Average value

Queirazza (1987)

Hudson river

5.49

Average value

Li (1984)

Rio Grande

Rio Puerco

Rio Salado

3.35

2.55

2.59

Average value

Average value

Average value

Popp and Laquer (1980)

Huanghe river (yellow river)

5.53

6.29

Min measured

Max measured

Zhang (1994)

 

Sagami river (Japan)

Yura river (Japan)

5.9

6.2

Mean value

Mean value

Takata (2010)

 

Table: SPM- Seawater

Location

Log Kd (L/kg)

Remarks

Reference

Seatanks at Winfrith

3.66

57Co after 168h

Leonard (1993)

North Sea

4.12

6.46

4.58

5.38

6.19

Minimum

Maximum

10th P

Median

90th P

Tappin (1995)

 

Kara Sea: the Novaya Zemlya Trough (NZT) and the mixing zones of the OB and Yenisey Rivers (RMZ)

4.65

3.00

5.30

4.89

3.90

5.43

Median(NZT)

Minimum (NZT)

Maximum (NZT)

Median (RMZ)

Minimum (RMZ)

Maximum (RMZ)

Carroll (1999)

Seine estuary

5

Salinity range of 20-30 g/L

Chiffoleau (1994)

New York Bight

4.28

Average value

Li (1984)

Sagami Bay (Japan)

Wakasa Bay (Japan)

5.2

5.9

Mean value

Mean value

Takata (2010)

 

Table: Sediment -Freshwater

Location

Log Kd (L/kg)

Remarks

Reference

Pinheiros River, Brasil

2.63

Aerobic

Lima (1993)

Tejo river, Portugal

2.9

3.6

 

2000 mg sediment/L

500 mg sediment/L

 

Madruga (1992)

 

Table: Sediment – Seawater

Location

Log Kd (L/kg)

Remarks

Reference

Kara Sea: the Novaya Zemlya Trough (NZT) and the mixing zones of the OB and Yenisey Rivers (RMZ)

5.18

4.48

5.48

4.26

3.30

4.60

Median (NZT)

Minimum (NZT)

Maximum (NZT)

Median (RMZ)

Minimum (RMZ)

Maximum (RMZ)

Carroll (1999)

Kara Sea + Fjords

6.3

4

 

3.08

 

6.3

Field (open Kara sea)

Experimental (Open Kara sea)

Experimental (Abrosimov Fjord)

Experimental (Stepovogo Fjord)

 

Fisher (1999)

 Table: Soil – Water

Log Kd (L/kg)

Remarks

Reference

0.05

1.10

3.47

4.18

4.23

Minimum

10th percentile

Median

90th percentile

Maximum

Janik (2010)

(474 experimental values)

Modeled values should not be taken into account when many measured data are available. As the amount of measured data is high, modeled data were not used for the derivation of the Log Kd values.

Using the collected data that are presented in the Tables above, typical Cobalt log Kd values are derived as the median value of averaged values per river or location (i.e. only one average value per river/location taken into account). A typical range of Kd values is based on the 10thand 90thpercentiles of the complete datasets (as presented in the tables above). For freshwater sediment, the minimum and maximum of the dataset was used because less than 5 datapoints are available (metal-specific REACH guidance, R.7.13-2, figure 2).

The 10th, 50th(median) and 90thpercentile of the various log Kd-distributions are compared in the Table below: 

 

 

 

SPM Freshwater

SPM Seawater

SEDIMENTFreshwater

SEDIMENT Seawater

SOIL 

10th percentile

2.97

3.78

2.63 (Min)

3.28

1.10

50th percentile

4.59

4.94

2.94

5.15

3.47

90th percentile

6.25

6.05

3.60 (Max)

6.28

4.18

 

Similar median values were obtained for the SPM distributionfunctions in freshwater and marine water (Log Kd of 4.59 – 4.94).The median Kd for sediment-seawater is one order of magnitude higher (Log Kd of 5.15), whereas the median Kd of sediment-freshwater and median Kd soil are more than one order of magnitude lower (Log Kd of 2.94 – 3.47) compared to the median Kd for suspended matter.

The derived mean Kd value for suspended matteris in accordance with the median partition coefficient that was proposed by the US EPA, Office of Solid Waste (1999). Based on literature data (n=20) a median log Kd of 4.7 was derived using a log-normal distribution. The proposed median Kd for soil is about one order of magnitude larger than the value reported by the same US EPA report (log Kd = 2.1, based on 11 data and a log-normal distribution), which may be explained by the larger dataset used in the present report (n = 474).

Values for solids-water in sewage sludge were added for CHESAR calculations and are based on the SPM freshwater.