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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Relevant and reliable data used for the determination of a PNEC for the freshwater and marine environments were retrieved for 12 different species: Aeolosoma sp. (oligochaete), Daphnia magna (cladoceran), Hyalella azteca (isopod), Lymnaea stagnalis (snail), Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladoceran), Chironomus tentans (midge), Mysidopsis bahia (mysid), Neanthes arenaceodentata (marine annelid), Dendraster excentricus (sand dollar), Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), and Crassostrea sp. (pacific oyster). Tests followed international accepted guidance and were based on measured levels of dissolved cobalt as cobalt dichloride. Values ranged from 1.4 to 45 µg Co/L for the freshwater species and 206 to 2763 µg Co/L for the marine species.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
7.55 µg/L
EC10, LC10 or NOEC for marine water invertebrates:
206 µg/L

Additional information

Freshwater:

 

From the database of chronic cobalt toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, 55 individual EC10 or NOEC values for 6 different individual species were reported. The NOEC/L(E)C10 ranged from 1.4 µg/L to 45 µg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to a range of water types (CDI 2010i). The table below represents the EC10 values of high quality studies used for the derivation of HC5 and aquatic freshwater PNEC. Where multiple data exist for a given species (>5), e.g., Ceriodaphnia dubia, the geometric mean of the available EC10s for the most sensitive endpoints from each test were used.

 

Table X. High quality studies used for derivation of the HC5and freshwater PNEC

Key Study

Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the aquatic freshwater HC5

Species

Endpoint

Value (µg Co/L)

CDI, 2008f

Aeolosoma sp (oligochaete)

reproduction

154.6

Heijerick et al 2007

Daphnia magna (cladoceran)

reproduction

32.4

 Heijerick et al 2007

Hyalella azteca (isopod)

growth

7.55

 Heijerick et al 2007

Lymnaea stagnalis (snail)

growth

9.61

CDI, 2005y

Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladoceran)

reproduction

7.89

 CDI, 2010h

Ceriodaphnia dubia

(cladoceran)

 reproduction

EC10: 19 (baseline)

EC10: 14.1 (low pH)

EC10: 13 (high pH)

EC10: 11.5 (high hardness, high alkalinity)

EC10: 8.6 (high alkalinity)

EC10: 15.8 (high DOC)

EC10: 45.2 (Magnesium 57.5 mg/L)

 CDI, 2010i

Ceriodaphnia dubia

(cladoceran)

 reproduction

EC10: 28.8 (Upper Penninsula)

EC10: 5.4 (South Santiam)

EC10: 11.7 (Lake Texoma)

 Pacific Ecorisk, 2005b  Chironomus tentans (midge)  mortality  167.2

 

Marine:

From the database of chronic cobalt toxicity to marine invertebrates, 13 NOEC or EC10 values are reported for 2 species. The NOEC/L(E)C10 values range from 206 µg Co/L for reproductive effects with the marine annelid, Neanthes arenaceodentata (CDI 2010j) to 2763 µg Co/L for the developmental endpoint with the oyster, Crassostrea sp (CDI 2010e). 

The table below represents the EC10 values of high quality studies used for the derivation of HC5 and aquatic marine PNEC

 

Table X. High quality studies used for derivation of the HC5and aquatic marine PNEC

Key Study

Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the aquatic marine HC5

Species

Endpoint

Value (µg Co/L)

Lehman, 2010

Mysidopsis bahia (mysid)

neonatal total young

219

CDI, 2010j

Neanthes arenaceodentata (marine annelid)

reproduction

206

CDI, 2010d

Mytillus sp.

(mussel)

proportion normal

1656

CDI, 2010f

Dendraster excentricus

(sand dollar)

proportion normal

968

CDI, 2010g

Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus

(sea urchin)

proportion normal

1786

CDI, 2010e

Crassostrea sp

(pacific oyster)

proportion normal

2763