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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Relevant and reliable data that could be used for classification for freshwater invertebrates were retrieved for 10 different species. The LC50s ranged from 0.61 mg Co/L for the cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia to 429 mg Co/L for the midge, Chironomus tentans. Relevant and reliable data that could be used for classification for marine invertebrates were retrieved for 4 different species. The LC50s ranged from 2.32 mg Co/L for the sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus to 3.70 mg Co/L for the pacific oyster, Crassostrea sp. Test results were obtained in experiments that followed international accepted guidance and were based on measured levels of dissolved cobalt as cobalt chloride.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
0.61 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
2.32 mg/L

Additional information

Freshwater:

 

From the database of acute cobalt toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, 85 individual LC50 values for 10 different individual species were reported. The LC50s ranged from 0.61mg Co/Lfor the cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia tested in soft, dissolved organic matter-free water (CDI, 2005) to 429 mg Co/L for the midge, Chironomus tentans (CDI, 2008). No freshwater acute invertebrate toxicity studies were used to derive the HC5 and freshwater PNEC.

 

Marine:

 

From the database of acute cobalt toxicity to marine invertebrates, 20 NOEC and EC50 values are reported for 6 species. The values range from 2.32 mg Co/L for the sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus (CDI 2010f) to 3.70 mg Co/L for the pacific oyster, Crassostrea sp.(CDI 2010e). The table below represents the EC50 values of high quality studies.

 

No short-term freshwater aquatic invertebrate tests are used in the freshwater PNEC derivation. Marine short-aquatic invertebrate tests are used in the marine PNEC derivation; see Section 7.1.1.2.2.