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EC number: 211-334-3
CAS number: 638-38-0
The major pool of manganese in soils
originates from crustal sources, with other sources including direct
atmospheric deposition, wash-off from plant and other surfaces, leaching
from plant tissues, and the shedding or excretion of materials such as
leaves, dead plant and animal excrement.
Natura (“ background”) levels of total
manganese in soils range from >1-4.000 mg/kg dry weight; with mean
values around 300-600 mg/kg dry weight.
Manganese concentration in air tend to
be lowest in remote location (about 0.5-14 ng/ m3) on
average, higher in rural areas (40ng/m3on average), and still
higher in urban areas (about 65-166 ng/m3on average).
Manganese concentrations in air tend to be highest in source-dominant
areas, where values can reach 8,000ng/m3). Annual averages of
manganese concentrations may rise to 200-300ng/m3 in air near
foundries and to over 500 ng/m3 in air near ferro-and
The major anthropogenic sources of
environmental manganese include municipal wastewater discharges, sewage
sludge, mining and mineral processing, emissions from alloy, steel and
Bioaccumulation in iron production, combustion of fossil fuels,
and, to a much lesser extend, emissions from the combustion of fuel
Manganese is released to air mainly as
particulate matter, and the fate and transport of the particles depend
on their size and density and on wind speed and direction. Some
manganese compounds are readily soluble in water. Manganese exists in
the aquatic environment in two main forms: Mn(II) and Mn(IV). Transition
between these two forms occurs via oxidation and reduction reactions
that may be abiotic or microbially mediated.
The environmental chemistry
of manganese is largely governed by pH and redox conditions; Mn(II)
dominates at lower pH and redox potential, with an increasing proportion
of colloidal manganese oxyhydroxides above pH 5.5 in non-dystrophic
waters. Chemical factors controlling sedimentary manganese cycling are
the oxygen content of the overlying water, the penetration of oxygen
into the sediments, the benthic organic carbon supply. Manganese in soil
can migrate as particulate matter to air or water, or soluble manganese
compounds can be leached from the soil. In soils manganese solubility is
determined by two variables: pH and redox potential.
Concentrations in seaweed range from
130-750 mg/kg dry weight, whereas concentrations in shellfish range from
3-660 mg/kg/dry weight; higher concentrations in shellfish are
associated with manganese- rich sediment. Concentrations of manganese
found in tissue of marine and freshwater fish tend to range from 0.2 to
19 mg/kg dry weight. Higher manganese concentrations- above 100 mg/kg
dry weight-have been reported for fish in polluted surface waters.
Concentrations of manganese
in terrestrial plants tend to range from 20 to 500 mg/kg dry weight.
Members of the Ericaceae family, which includes blueberries, are
regarded as manganese accumulators. There are numerous reports of foliar
manganese levels in excess of 2,000-4,000 mg/kg.
Mean manganese concentrations in
bird´s eggs from a variety of geographical areas range from 1 to5 mg/kg
dry weight, mean liver concentrations range from 3 to 11 mg/kg dry
weight, and mean feather concentrations reach from 0.3 to 40 mg/kg dry
weight. Mean manganese concentrations of up to 17 mg/kg dry weight have
been found in tissues (liver, kidney and whole body) from a variety of
reptiles and wild mammals.
Manganese is an essential nutrient for
micro-organisms, plants and animals. Nutritional manganese requirements
for terrestrial plants are around 10 - 50 mg/kg tissue. Critical
nutritional levers vary widely between species and among cultivars of a
species. Calcareous soils, especially those with poor drainage and high
organic matter, are the types of soils that produce manganese deficient
plants. Symptoms of manganese plants vary widely with species and
include marginal chloroses, necrotic lesions and distorted development
of the leaves. Toxic manganese concentrations in crop plant tissue vary
widely, with critical values ranging from 100 to 5,000 mg/kg. Manganese
toxicity is a major factor limiting crop growth on acidic, poorly
drained, or steam-sterilized mineral soils. There is a wide range of
variation in tolerance to manganese between and within plant species.
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