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EC number: 231-208-1
CAS number: 7446-70-0
Gupta et al. (1986) reported about kinetic
analyses of aluminium in the rat following intravenous and oral doses of
aluminium chloride. The authors stated, that aluminium did not
significantly penetrate the cellular components of blood. Plasma protein
binding was determined to be about 98%. Sixty per cent of the
intravenous dose was excreted in the urine and the remaining 40% was
excreted in the faeces.
A study was conducted to determine the bioavailability of
ingested Al-26 labeled aluminium and aluminium compounds in Sprague
Dawley rats (ToxTest, 2010). The animals were orally (gavage)
treated with formulations of aluminum citrate, sulfate, nitrate,
chloride and hydroxide, each delivering 30 mg/kg bw Al3 +,
daily for 7 days or 14 days. Blood and organs were collected and
analyzed for aluminum, manganese, iron and copper concentrations. All
animals survived until their scheduled necropsies. No abnormal clinical
observations were made, and food/water consumption, body weights and
growth patterns were not influenced by treatment. The
results produced in the rat showed a similar GIT bioavailability of the
above-mentioned salts. Apart from bone (males, day 7) and kidney (day 7
males and day 14 females), there were no significant differences in
aluminum concentration between treated and control animals for any tissue.
results suggest that aluminium citrate is a little more soluble than
aluminium chloride and nitrate, but this result was not unexpected since
citrate will chelate aluminium ions, holding them in solution and
increasing their chances of uptake through the gut wall.
The recent study of Priest (2010) investigated
the bioavailability of several Aluminium salts (Aluminium sulphate,
Aluminium citrate, Aluminium hydroxide) as well as Aluminium chloride.
The results performed showed that the measured mean bioavailability in
rat for some of soluble Aluminium salts of interest in this dossier
decreased in the order: Aluminium sulphate (0.21%), Aluminium citrate
(0.079%), Aluminium chloride (0.054%), Aluminium hydroxide (0.025%).
Although the result for Aluminium sulphate was unexpectedly higher than
for other mineral acid salts tested, it corresponds closely with the
uptake levels measured in two human volunteers that swallowed drinking
water that contained26Al introduced as Aluminium sulphate
(0.20%). Due to the use of the same experimental methods for the
different substances, the results from the human study can be
quantitatively compared to the data from the animal study as both test
substances were administered without co-exposures to ligands that may
influence the bioavailability. The human result for Aluminium hydroxide
(0.01%) was similar to that obtained using the rat model. Additionally,
the measured bioavailability of the Aluminium citrate in the rat was
well within the range of measured/estimated values of 0.047% to 1% in
man for citrate (and orange juice).
General discussion of aluminium kinetics:
The information below is taken from the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
(ATSDR): Toxicological Profile for Aluminum, 2008
Health Council of the Netherlands: Aluminium
and aluminium compounds - Health-based recommended occupational exposure
World Health Organization, Joint FAO/WHO
Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA): Safety evaluation of certain
food additives and contaminants, WHO food additives series: 65, 2012
European Commission, Scientific Committee on
Consumer Safety (SCCS): Opinion on the safety of aluminium in cosmetic
The absorption of aluminium via the
gastrointestinal tract is generally considered to be low, ca. 0.1 -1%,
depending on the type of aluminium compound ingested and the composition
of the diet (ATSDR, 2008; Health Council of the Netherlands, 2009).
Evidence for absorption of aluminium after
inhalation exposure in humans is available from several occupational
studies. Occupational exposure to aluminium fumes, dusts, and flakes has
resulted in increases in aluminium levels in serum, tissue, and urine.
The percentage of aluminium absorbed following inhalation exposure was
not reported in the occupational toxicokinetic studies.Mechanisms of
inhalation absorption of aluminium are not well characterised, although
it seems likely that relatively large aluminium-containing particles
retained in the respiratory tract are cleared to the gastrointestinal
tract by ciliary action.
The database regarding aluminium absorption
after dermal exposure to aluminium or its compounds is poor. Aluminium
compounds are common additives in deodorants or antiperspirants and are
soluble at very low pH in the formulation, however once aplied on the
skin they form chemically intert polymeric complexes with basic
components of sweat and skin. This limits the bioaccessibility of
aluminium on living skin.
Aluminium binds to various ligands in the
blood and distributes to every organ, with highest concentrations found
in bone and lung tissues. Aluminium can form complexes with many
molecules in the body (organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides,
phosphates, carbohydrates, macromolecules). Free aluminium ions (e.g.,
Al(H2O)63+) occur in very low concentrations. In
the blood, aluminium is mostly bound to transferrin in the serum (89%)
(Health Council of the Netherlands, 2009). Cellular uptake of aluminium
by organs and tissues is believed to be relatively slow and most likely
occurs from the aluminium bound to transferrin (Ganrot, Environ Health
Perspect 65:363 -441, 1986). It is likely that the density of
transferring receptors in different organs influences the distribution
of aluminium to organs.
Urinary excretion is the primary route of elimination of absorbed
aluminium. Unabsorbed aluminium is excreted primarily in the feces.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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