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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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The long-term fish toxicity test is waived and no further testing is proposed. Short-term toxicity studies are available for fish, invertebrates and algae. Long-term toxicity studies are available for invertebrates and algae and no toxicity was observed at the highest concentration tested in all of the short- and long-term studies. In addition, an extended 14 day acute fish toxicity test is available, in which the NOEC was determined at 100mg/l and no visual signs of toxicity were observed, neither any apparent effects on the weight and length of fish after an extended 14 day duration. It is anticipated that toxicity would be unlikely to be observed in a long-term fish test based on the absence of toxicity observed in other aquatic toxicity tests. Conducting a long-term fish study is not considered necessary in this situation and would not align with the ECHA principles regarding the reduction and minimisation of unnessecary vertebrate testing.

In addition, no exposure to the environment is anticipated. The test substance is an ink and contained in cartridges when used in standard types of ink printers. The ink remains inside the printer until the end of the life of the printer. It may also be sold in replaceable cartridges. Within the European Union, the Registrant offers a returns programme for these types of printer and empty cartridges. For the commercial, large web presses and under normal domestic use conditions there are no effluents or discharges to the environment. Only in the case of unplanned ink cartridge removal from these presses would ink need to be disposed of according to local waste regulations. The Registrant offers an EU-wide take back programme for waste cartridges and printer heads. For 200 L barrels and 1000 L totes, a repurposing programme is offered for EU customers.

Further testing is waived on the basis of a low potential for exposure of the test substance to the environment from the use of printing inks either during routine use or at end-of-life and on existing low potential acute and chronic toxicity information for aquatic organisms.

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