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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

The determination of the 96h-LC50 (freshwater fish) of (-)-beta-pinene is based on two experimental studies and one QSAR.
The 96h-LC50 of (-)-beta-pinene (freshwater fish) is 0.502 mg/L.
Based on this results, (-)-beta-pinene is classified:
- dangerous for the environment according to Directive 67/548/EEC "R50/53: very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment"
- and hazardous to the aquatic environment under Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP) - Category Acute 1 and Category Chronic 1.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
0.502 mg/L

Additional information

Two experimental studies and one QSAR are available to determine the 96h-LC50 (freshwater fish) of (-)-beta-pinene.

Broderius, 1990

In an acute aquatic toxicity study performed similarly to OECD guideline 203, groups (10 fish per concentration) of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to (-)-beta-pinene at concentrations of 0, 420, 840, 1270, 1690 or 2110 µg/L (nominal) for 96 hours under flow-through conditions. The 96h-LC50 was determined to be at 0.502 mg/L (based on measured concentration of test item).

Tobor-Kapłon, 2010

In a 96-h acute toxicity study conducted according to OECD guideline 203, carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to (-)-beta-pinene at 0, 4.6, 10, 22, 46 and 100 % of a Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) prepared at a loading rate of 100 mg/L under semi-static conditions.

The 96h-LC50 was calculated as the geometric mean of the LC0 (0.27 mg/L) and the LC100 (1.15 mg/L): it was determined to be 0.557 mg/L.

Thomas, 2014

A QSAR prediction was performed to assess the acute toxicity of (-)-beta-pinene to fish. This QSAR has been validated to be compliant with the OECD recommendations for QSAR modeling (OECD, 2004) and predicts the endpoint value which would be expected when testing the substance under experimental conditions in a laboratory following Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 203, "Fish Acute Toxicity Test", referenced as Method C.1 of Commission Regulation No. 440/2008. The 96h-LC50 was predicted as 0.68 mg/L.

The lower 96h-LC50of (-)-beta-pinene determined in these studies can be used as key value for chemical safety assessment.