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EC number: 242-060-2
CAS number: 18172-67-3
The mean total concentration of the
monoterpenes in the air of the chamber from all the turpentine exposures
was 449 mg/m3, with a relative SD of 1-4%, based on air concentrations
from four different occasions at each exposure.
If the assumption is made that the
turpentine consists of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene, the
proportions of the vapour were about 54%, 11%, and 35%, respectively.
Table 1: Mean (SD) experimental
results ofsome physiological and toxicokinetic vaiables from two hour
inhalation exposure to 450 mg/m3 of turpentine during physical exercise
at a workload of 50 W (also, results from previous single exposure to
alpha-pinene and 3-carene are presented)
Exposure to turpentine
Exposure to alpha-pinene
Exposure to 3-carene
Air concentration (mg/m3)
Net uptake (% of total inhaled)
Respiratory elimination after exposure (% of net uptake)
2.4 (1.5) *
Concentration at steady state (30 min before end of exposure) (µmol/L)
* P<0.05, Student's t test v. pure 3-carene
Table 2: mean (SD) apparent CLs and
t1/2s of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene from two hour
inhalation exposure to 450 mg/m3 of alpha-pinene, 3-carene or turpentine
during physical exercise at a workload of 50 W
0.8 (0.09) §
0.5 (0.3) §
0.4 (0.1) §
t1/2 terminal (h)
§ four subjects due to analytical problems
resulting in problems calculating AUC
In this study, eight male volunteers were
exposed to 450 mg/m3 turpentine by inhalation (2 h with
physical exercise workload of 50 W) in an exposure chamber and the
extent of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and delta-3-carene inhaled as well
as their excretion rates from blood were investigated.
The mean relative uptakes of alpha-pinene,
beta-pinene, and delta-3-carene were 62%, 66%, and 68% respectively, of
the amount inhaled. Between 2% and 5 % of the net uptake was excreted
unchanged in the expired air after the end of exposure.
The mean blood clearance 21 h after exposure
(CL21h) of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and delta-3-carene, were 0.8, 0.5,
and 0.4 L/kg/h, respectively. The mean half lives (t1/2) of the last
phase of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and delta-3-carene averaged 32, 25,
and 42 h, respectively.
The last phase of the t1/2s tended to be
longer after exposure to turpentine than monoterpenes. The total blood
clearance CL21h of delta-3-carene found in this study was lower, and
CL4h of delta-3-carene was significantly lower than the values obtained
from similar exposure to pure delta-3-carene.
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