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Physical & Chemical properties

Density

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Description of key information

The density of pure formaldehyde is 0.815 g/cm³ at -20 °C
The vapor density of pure formaldehyde is ca 1.03-1.067 ( gas at 20 °C, air = 1)
The density of aqueous formaldehyde solutions is 1.069-1.12 g/cm3 at 20 °C (depending on concentration)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Density of pure formaldehyde.

Eight published handbooks and/or authoritative online data bases were identified containing information on the density of pure formaldehyde.

According to the CRC (2010) and SYKE (2015), the density of formaldehyde is 0.815 g/cm³ at -20 °C
The Merck Index, and Hawleys (2012) report this value as relative density 0.815 at -20/4 °C
Ullmanns (2010), RömppChemie (2015) and Reaxys (2015) report 0.8153 g/cm³ at -20 °C and 0.9172 g/cm³ at -80 °C

Verschueren (2001) reports a relative density of 0.81 (-20/4).

Based on these data the density of pure formaldehyde is determined to be 0.815 g/cm³ at -20 °C.

Vapor density of pure formaldehyde

Six published handbooks and/or authoritative online data bases also contained the vapor density of pure formaldehyde. The following values were identified:

Verschueren (2001), and Syke (2015), report a vapor density of 1.03 (air =1).

Chemsafe reports a vapor density of 1.037 (air =1).

The Merck Index, RömppChemie (2015) and Hawleys (2012) published a vapor density of 1.067 (air = 1)

Based on these data the relative density of pure formaldehyde is determined to be ca 1.03-1.067 ( gas at 20 °C, air = 1)


D
ensity of aqueous formaldehyde solutions Four sources were identified concerning the density of aqueous formaldehyde solutions. According to a study form BASF (1987, Key) the density of solutions containing ca 30 to 40 % formaldehyde is 1.069 - 1.12 g/cm³ (20°C). These results are supported by Walker (1967) in which the density of solutions containing 37.5 %, 45 %, and 50 % formaldehyde and 1 % methanol are reported to be 1.113 g/cm³, 1.135 g/cm³ and 1.15 g/cm³ respectively (18 °C). In addition the Merck index (2013) reports a density of 1.09 g/cm³ for a ca. 37% (wt) formaldehyde solution and the EPA (2008) reregistration publication a density of and 1.048 g/cm³ as well as a relative density of 1.08.