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Physical & Chemical properties

Boiling point

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Description of key information

The boiling point of pure formaldehyde is ≥-21 °C and ≤ -19 °C at 1013.25 hPa
The boiling point of aqueous formaldehyde solutions is 98.9 - 99.4 °C at 1013.25 hPa

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Boiling point pure formaldehyde.

Fifteen published handbooks and/or authoritative online databases were identified containing information on the boiling point of pure formaldehyde. All sources published values in de range of   -21 to – 19 °C.

The CRC (2010), Yaws 2010, and Kirk-Othmer (2015) report a boiling point of -19.1 °C.

The Ullmanns Encyclopedia (2012) report a boiling point of -19.2 °C

The REAXYS database (2015, Spence 1935) report a value of -19.3°C and REAXYS (2015, Maslov 1966) report a value of -19.25 °C

The Merck Index (2013), the EPA (2008), and RömpChemie (2015) report a value of -19.5 °C

The Gestis database (2015), Chemsafe (2015) as well as Hawley’s dictionary (2002) report a boiling point of -19 °C

The Knovel database (2012) reports -21 °C.

Both the SYKE online database (2015) and the Verschueren handbook (2001) report the values -21 and -19 °C.

Based on these data the boiling point of pure formaldehyde is determined to be ≥-21 °C and ≤ -19 °C at 1013.25 hPa

Boiling point aqueous formaldehyde solutions

Five sources were identified containing information on the boiling point of aqueous formaldehyde solutions.

In an experimental determination of the boiling of aqueous formaldehyde solutions published by Walker (1967) the boiling point was determined to be 98.9 °C for a 37 % formaldehyde solution containing 1 % methanol. A 45 % and 50 % solution (both containing 1 % methanol) had a boiling point of 99.4 °C.

These results were supported by the values reported in the following handbooks:
According to The Merck Index (2013) the boiling point for a ca. 37% (wt) formaldehyde solution in water containing methanol is 96 °C
According to the Ullmanns encyclopedia (2012) the boiling point for pure aqueous solutions containing up to 55 wt % formaldehyde is   ≥99  ≤ 100 °C.
According to Hawley’s dictionary (2012) the boiling point is 96 °C (Aqueous 37% solution with 15% methanol) and for a methanol free solution 101 °C.
The EPA (2008) also published a boiling point slightly above the boiling point of water of 101 °C