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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
February 1998
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 1 because the study followed a standard guideline, followed GLP guidelines, and was conducted without deviations that would invalidate the study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 10253 (Water quality - Marine Algal Growth Inhibition Test with Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Skeletonema costatum
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20.3 to 21.5 degrees C
pH:
9.2 to 9.4
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal loading rates were 10038, 20012, 30052, 60195, and 100002 mg/L.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
3,5-dichlorophenol
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LOELR
Effect conc.:
100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
100 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The growth inhibition of Skeletonema costatum was evaluated with 3,5-dichlorophenol as a positive control at a concentration of 1.21 mg/L, which produced 79% growth inhibition.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Alga (Skeletonema costatum) growth, as measured by biomass and growth rate, in cultures exposed to a 100,000 mg/L water accommodated fraction of the test substance was not inhibited when compared to the control after a 72-hour exposure. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 and NOELR values for these two endpoints are reported as >100,000 mg/L and 100,000 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

Alga (Skeletonema costatum) growth, as measured by biomass and growth rate, in cultures exposed to a 100,000 mg/L water accommodated fraction of the test substance was not inhibited when compared to the control after a 72-hour exposure. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 and NOELR values for these two endpoints are reported as >100,000 mg/L and 100,000 mg/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
September 1997
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 1 because the study followed a standard guideline, followed GLP guidelines, and was conducted without deviations that would invalidate the study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 10253 (Water quality - Marine Algal Growth Inhibition Test with Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Skeletonema costatum
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
20.3 to 20.9 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 9.2
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations were 10094, 20171, 30135, 50069, 60021, 80072, and 100137 mg/L. A control was also tested.
Details on test conditions:
Water accommodated fractions of the test material were prepared for each loading level.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
3,5-dichlorophenol
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL10
Effect conc.:
13 906 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI = 12343 to 15406
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL10
Effect conc.:
> 60 021 - < 80 072 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI not determined
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
57 161 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI = 54701 to 59867
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 137 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI not determined
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL90
Effect conc.:
234 959 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI = 207059 to 272344
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL90
Effect conc.:
> 100 137 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CI not determined
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The growth inhibition of Skeletonema costatum was evaluated with 3,5-dichlorophenol as a positive control at a concentration of 1.20 mg/L, which produced 56% growth inhibition.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Alga (Skeletonema costatum) growth, as measured by biomass, exposed to water accommodated fractions of the test substance exhibited EL10, EL50, and EL90 values of 13906, 57161, and 234959 mg/L, respectively. In comparison, the growth rate results for the endpoints EL10, EL50, and EL90 were 60021 to 80072, >100137, and >100137 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

Alga (Skeletonema costatum) growth, as measured by biomass, exposed to water accommodated fractions of the test substance exhibited EL10, EL50, and EL90 values of 13906, 57161, and 234959 mg/L, respectively. In comparison, the growth rate results for the endpoints EL10, EL50, and EL90 were 60021 to 80072, >100137, and >100137 mg/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
January to May 1995
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 1 because the study followed a standard guideline, followed GLP guidelines, and was conducted without deviations that would invalidate the study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
Organisms used in the test were from a laboratory culture, originally derived from a strain (ATCC 22662) obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Maryland, Ohio, USA.
Test type:
static
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
23.8 to 24.4 degrees C
pH:
Within Guideline requirements
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading rates were 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/L. A control was also tested.
Details on test conditions:
The study was conducted in sealed test systems with no headspace that were not renewed during the study. The test systems used were glass Erlenmeyer flasks that contained 287 ml when full. Each treatment level was evaluated in triplicate test systems and the control in 6 replicate test systems. Control and treatment systems were innoculated with a concentration of 5000 cells/ml. Test systems were incubated under constant illumination (approximately 5000 lux) on an orbital incubator.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the EL50 data were not conducted becasue a 50% effect was not achieved. A William's test (William, 1971, 1972) was used to calculate the significance of difference in area under the growth curve and average specific growth rate data from the control and treatment systems to determine the NOELR values (calculated at a 5% probability level).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Growth of alga cultures, as measured by biomass and growth rate, exposed to water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C9-C11, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, was not inhibited by more than 50% over 72 hours. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 values for these two endpoints are reported as >1000 mg/L. The 72-hr NOELR values for biomass and growth rate are 3 and 100 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

Growth of alga cultures, as measured by biomass and growth rate, exposed to water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C9-C11, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, was not inhibited by more than 50% over 72 hours. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 values for these two endpoints are reported as >1000 mg/L. The 72-hr NOELR values for biomass and growth rate are 3 and 100 mg/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
June 1994
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 1 because the study followed a standard guideline, followed GLP guidelines, and was conducted without deviations that would invalidate the study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The water accommodated fraction of the test material were prepared by stirring the test material in the exposure solution for 25 hours after which the the aqueous phase was removed for testing.
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
Organisms used in the test were from a laboratory culture, originally derived from a strain (ATCC 22662) obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Maryland, Ohio, USA.
Test type:
static
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
24 to 26 degrees C
pH:
Within Guideline requirements
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading rate was 1000 mg/L. A control was also tested.
Details on test conditions:
The study was conducted in sealed test systems with no headspace that were not renewed during the study. The test systems used were 300 ml glass Erlenmeyer flasks. The treatment level was evaluated in triplicate test systems and the control in 6 replicate test systems. Control and treatment systems were innoculated with a concentration of 5000 cells/ml. Test systems were incubated under constant illumination (approximately 3000 lux) on an orbital incubator.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The growth of algae in the the test systems was greater than the controls, which performed normally, therefore no analyses were required.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Growth of alga cultures, as measured by biomass and growth rate, exposed to a water accommodated fraction of the test substance was not inhibited over 72 hours. The growth of algae in the the test systems was greater than the controls, which performed normally. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 values for the two endpoints are reported as >1000 mg/L. The 72-hr NOELR values for biomass and growth rate are reported as 1000 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

Growth of alga cultures, as measured by biomass and growth rate, exposed to a water accommodated fraction of the test substance was not inhibited over 72 hours. The growth of algae in the the test systems was greater than the controls, which performed normally. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 values for the two endpoints are reported as >1000 mg/L. The 72-hr NOELR values for biomass and growth rate are reported as 1000 mg/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
March to November 1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 1 because the study followed a standard guideline, followed GLP guidelines, and was conducted without deviations that would invalidate the study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
An equilibration study was conducted prior to the study to determine the length of time needed to develop water accommodated fractions (WAFs) at the 1000 mg/L loading level. The aqueous phase of the WAF was analyzed after 1, 24, 48, and 96 hours of stirring. In all samples, the quantity of test substance in solution was less than the limit of detection (0.5 mg/L). Further analysis of test substance in test media a loading level of 1 g/L also showed no detectable amounts of test substance. Consequently, analysis of treatment solutions from the definitive study were not conducted.
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
Organisms used in the test were from a laboratory culture, originally derived from a strain (ATCC 22662) obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Maryland, Ohio, USA.
Test type:
static
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
23 to 25 degrees C
pH:
7.2 to 8.8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading rate was 1000 mg/L. A control was also tested.
Details on test conditions:
The study was conducted in sealed test systems with no headspace that were not renewed during the study. The test systems used were 300 ml glass Erlenmeyer flasks that were complely filled with test media. Six replicate test systems were established for the treatment level and control. Control and treatment systems were innoculated with a concentration of 5000 cells/ml. Test systems were incubated under constant illumination (approximately 3000 lux) on an orbital incubator.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Reported statistics and error estimates:
None
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Growth in an alga culture, as measured by biomass and growth rate, exposed to a 1000 mg/L water accommodated fraction of the test substance was not inhibited when compared to the control after a 72-hour exposure. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 and NOELR values for these two endpoints are reported as >1000 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, respectively.
Executive summary:

Growth in an alga culture, as measured by biomass and growth rate, exposed to a 1000 mg/L water accommodated fraction of the test substance was not inhibited when compared to the control after a 72-hour exposure. Therefore, the 72-hr EL50 and NOELR values for these two endpoints are reported as >1000 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, respectively.

Description of key information

Substances identified as C9-11 hydrocarbons, C10-13 hydrocarbons, and C11-14 hydrocarbons, each containing n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclics, with <2% aromatics in the C9 to C14 Aliphatics Category (</=2% aromatics) are not expected to demonstrate algal toxicity based on results of studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Each of these substances has been shown not to demonstrate effects, as measured by biomass and growth rate in 72-hour EL50 studies at the highest loading level tested, 1000 mg/L. The 72 -hour NOELR values for biomass and growth rate for C10-13 hydrocarbons and C11-14 hydrocarbons were 1000 mg/L, while the 72 -hour NOELR values for biomass and growth rate for C9-11 hydrocarbons were 3 and 100 mg/L, respectively.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Substances identified as C9-11 hydrocarbons, C10-13 hydrocarbons, and C11-14 hydrocarbons, each containing n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclics, with <2% aromatics in the C9 to C14 Aliphatics Category (</=2% aromatics) are not expected to demonstrate algal toxicity based on results of studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Each of these substances has been shown not to demonstrate effects, as measured by biomass and growth rate in 72-hour EL50 studies at the highest loading level tested, 1000 mg/L. The 72 -hour NOELR values for biomass and growth rate for C10-13 hydrocarbons and C11-14 hydrocarbons were 1000 mg/L, while the 72 -hour NOELR values for biomass and growth rate for C9-11 hydrocarbons were 3 and 100 mg/L, respectively.