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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
March 1997
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study was conducted according to a standard guideline without deviations from the protocol and was conducted under GLP guidelines.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ISO (1990) Proposal to TC147/SC5/WG2: Determination of acute lethal toxicicty to marine adult copepods (Arcartia tonsa Dana)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A water accommodated fraction was prepared for each treatment loading. Test substance was added to test medium and stirred for approximately 20 hours, then allowed to stand for approximately 1 hour before withdrawing an aliquot by siphon from the middle of the aqueous phase to avoid either floating or settled test substance. Seawater used in the study was UV sterilized, filtered to 0.2 um, and obtained from Scapa Flow, Orkney, UK.
Test organisms (species):
other: Arcartia tonsa
Details on test organisms:
Test organisms were 19 days old at test initiation.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
19.6 to 21.7 degrees C
pH:
8.00 to 8.02
Dissolved oxygen:
97 to 99%
Salinity:
33.7‰ (3.4%)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal treatment levels included the control and 1000, 3000, 3204, 5596, and 10000 mg/L.
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels were covered 100 ml borosilicate glasss crystallizing dishes containing 50 ml of test medium. 18 to 21 organisms were tested per treatment level and 38 organisms were tested in the control. No more than 11 organisms were added to a test vessel.

Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
3,5-dichorophenol
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Mortality results for the definitive test:
Nominal Copepod Total
Loading Mortality Mortality
(mg/L) (@ 24, 48 hrs)* (%)
Control 0, 1 3
1000 2, 3 17
3000 0, 0 0
3204 0, 1 5
5596 1, 1 5
10,000 0, 1 5

*38 organisms tested in the control and 18 to 21 organisms tested in the treatment levels
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The 48-hour LC50 value for 3,5-dichlorophenol was 0.78 mg/L, which compared to the historical laboratory mean concentration of 0.68 mg/L.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analyses were not conducted as 50% motality was not reached.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce 50% mortality with Arcartia tonsa at loading levels ranging between 1000 and 10,000 mg/L after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 48-hour LL50 is reported as >10,000 mg/L.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce 50% mortality with Arcartia tonsa at loading levels ranging between 1000 and 10,000 mg/L after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 48-hour LL50 is reported as >10,000 mg/L. Although the three highest loading levels demonstrated a low degree of mortality, the reported mortality was eqivalent to the control. The 17% mortality reported in the 1000 mg/L loading level was the highest mortality reported in any of the treatment levels, but as this occurred in the lowest level and the treatment levels above it demonstrated either no mortality or mortality that was comparable to the control, the mortality in the lowest loading level is not considered significant.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solutions were prepared by stirring the test substance (100 and 1000 mg/L; each loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as approximately 0.2 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases in each solution were allowed to stand and separate for 4 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
other: Chaetogammarus marinus
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 5mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Fucus sp. Housing included shelter for concealment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
15 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading levels were 100 and 1000 mg/L, which measured 0.1 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solutions were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
ca. 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction at 1000 mg/L produced approximately 50% mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance produced an LC50 concentration with Chaetogammarus marinus that was reported as 0.1 mg/L after a 96-hour exposure.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance produced an LC50 concentration with Chaetogammarus marinus that was reported as 0.1 mg/L after a 96-hour exposure.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solutions were prepared by stirring the test substance (10 and 100 mg/L; each loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as approximately 0.2 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases in each solution were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were less than 24 hours old and born of adults aged approximately 3 weeks. The adults were from a laboratory culture, maintained under standardized conditions.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading levels were 10 and 100 mg/L, which measured 0.2 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, at test initiation, and 0.004 and not detected at test termination.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 250 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. Control and treatment solutions were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
ca. 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 100 mg/L loading produced approximately 50% immobility after a 48-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance produced an EC50 concentration that was reported as approximately 0.02 mg/L after a 48-hour exposure.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance produced an EC50 concentration that was reported as approximately 0.02 mg/L after a 48-hour exposure.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solutions were prepared by stirring the test substance (100 and 1000 mg/L; each loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as approximately 0.2 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases in each solution were allowed to stand and separate for 4 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 4 weeks old and 6 mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading levels were 100 and 1000 mg/L, which measured 0.1 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 1 organism placed in 20 ml of treatment solution contained in a closed glass scintillation vial. Ten individual systems for the control and each treatment level were prepared.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Water accommodated fractions up to a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L and the LC50 = >0.1 mg/L.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L and the LC50 = >0.1 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solutions were prepared by stirring the test substance (100 and 1000 mg/L; each loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as approximately 0.05 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases in each solution were allowed to stand and separate for 4 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
other: Chaetogammarus marinus
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 5mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Fucus sp. Housing included shelter for concealment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
15 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading levels were 100 and 1000 mg/L, which each measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solutions were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Water accommodated fractions up to a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from each of the exposure solutions. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.05 mg/L.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from each of the exposure solutions. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.05 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solutions were prepared by stirring the test substance (0.56, 1.0, 100, and 1000 mg/L; each loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as approximately 0.05 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases in each solution were allowed to stand and separate for 4 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were less than 24 hours old and born of adults aged approximately 3 weeks. The adults were from a laboratory culture, maintained under standardized conditions.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading levels were 0.56, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg/L, which each measured <0.003 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 250 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. Control and treatment solutions were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Water accommodated fractions up to a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce immobility after a 48-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.003 mg/L and the test substances was not detected in samples from each of the exposure solutions. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.05 mg/L.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.003 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from each of the exposure solutions. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.05 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solutions were prepared by stirring the test substance (100 and 1000 mg/L; each loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as approximately 0.05 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases in each solution were allowed to stand and separate for 4 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 4 weeks old and 6 mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading levels were 100 and 1000 mg/L, which each measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 1 organism placed in 20 ml of treatment solution contained in a closed glass scintillation vial. Ten individual systems for the control and each treatment level were prepared.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: Water accommodated fractions up to a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from each of the exposure solutions. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.05 mg/L.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from each of the exposure solutions. The saturated exposure solutions at four different loadings up to 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.05 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as less than 0.05 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
other: Chaetogammarus marinus
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 5mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Fucus sp. Housing included shelter for concealment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
15 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not producemortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as less than 0.05 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were less than 24 hours old and born of adults aged approximately 3 weeks. The adults were from a laboratory culture, maintained under standardized conditions.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 250 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce immobility after a 48-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as less than 0.05 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 4 weeks old and 6 mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 1 organism placed in 20 ml of treatment solution contained in a closed glass scintillation vial. Ten individual systems for the control and treatment level were prepared.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.05 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as 0.004 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
other: Chaetogammarus marinus
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 5mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Fucus sp. Housing included shelter for concealment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
15 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.004 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as 0.004 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.004 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.004 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as 0.004 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were less than 24 hours old and born of adults aged approximately 3 weeks. The adults were from a laboratory culture, maintained under standardized conditions.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 250 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.004 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as 0.004 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce immobility after a 48-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.004 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.004 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as 0.004 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 4 weeks old and 6 mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 1 organism placed in 20 ml of treatment solution contained in a closed glass scintillation vial. Ten individual systems for the control and treatment level were prepared.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.004 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as 0.004 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.004 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.004 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.004 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as less than 0.004 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
other: Chaetogammarus marinus
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 5mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Fucus sp. Housing included shelter for concealment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
15 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.003 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as between 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as between 0.004 and 0.002 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.004 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.003 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.004 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.003 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as less than 0.004 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were less than 24 hours old and born of adults aged approximately 3 weeks. The adults were from a laboratory culture, maintained under standardized conditions.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 250 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.003 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as between 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as between 0.004 and 0.002 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce immobility after a 48-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.004 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.003 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.004 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.003 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as less than 0.004 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 4 weeks old and 6 mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.003 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as between 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as between 0.004 and 0.002 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.004 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.003 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as between 0.004 mg/L and 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.003 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as 0.002 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
other: Chaetogammarus marinus
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 5mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Fucus sp. Housing included shelter for concealment.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
15 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.002 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as 0.002 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.002 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Chaetogammarus marinus due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.002 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as 0.002 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were less than 24 hours old and born of adults aged approximately 3 weeks. The adults were from a laboratory culture, maintained under standardized conditions.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 250 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.002 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as 0.002 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce immobility after a 48-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 48-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.002 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce immobility to Daphnia magna due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce immobility in the test organisms after a 48-hour exposure. Therefore, the 48-hour EL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.002 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986 to 1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has a reliability of 2 because it was conducted according to a standard guideline, but was not conducted under GLP guidelines and the report contains little information on water quality parameters.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As described in: The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution - GESAMP - reports and studies no. 17, 1982.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
100 ml samples of the aqueous exposure phase were sampled for paraffin content.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared by stirring the test substance (1000 mg/L; the loading was far in excess of water solubility, which was cited as 0.002 mg/L), with water for 24 hours. After stirring, the two phases were allowed to stand and separate for 24 hours. The aqueous phase was removed from the bottom of the mixing vessel through a stopcock. The aqueous phase was then used in the definitive study and the analyses. Exposure solutions were renewed daily.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
The test organisms were from a laboratory culture, approximately 4 weeks old and 6 mm long. The laboratory culture was maintained under standardized conditions and fed Artemia nauplii.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Test temperature:
20 degrees C
pH:
7.5 to 8.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Most test solutions were saturated with oxygen, with the exception of a few test solutions that were lower than saturation but >6.5 mg/L.
Salinity:
2.8%
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The nominal loading level was 1000 mg/L, which measured <0.005 mg/L at test initiation.
Details on test conditions:
A test system consisted of 10 organisms placed in 1000 ml of treatment solution contained in a glass beaker and covered with glass to minimize volatile losses. The control and treatment solution were prepared in duplicate.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.002 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: No effects were reported in a saturated exposure solution. The limit of detection is noted as 0.005 mg/L and the solubility is reported as 0.002 mg/L.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: The water accommodated fraction of a 1000 mg/L loading did not produce mortality after a 96-hour exposure.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.002 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance did not produce mortality to Mysidopsis bahia (new name: Americamysis bahia) due to the low water solubility of the test substance. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/L and the test substance was not detected in samples from the highest exposure solution. The saturated exposure solution at a loading of 1000 mg/L did not produce mortality in the test organisms after a 96-hour exposure. Therefore, the 96-hour LL50 = >1000 mg/L. The solubility of the test substance is noted in the report as 0.002 mg/L, which is approximately the limit of detection. Consequently, the EC50 is reported as >0.002 mg/L.

Description of key information

The normal paraffin substances in this category, including n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, and a substance containing a range of normal paraffins identified as hydrocarbons, C11-C14, containing n-alkanes with less than 2% aromatics, are not expected to demonstrate acute invetebrate toxicity based on results of studies with freshwater and marine invertebrates, including D. magna, C. marinus, and Mysidopsis bahia. Each of these substances has been shown not to demonstrate effects, as measured by immobility or mortality in 48- or 96-hour toxicity studies at the highest loading levels tested, which have ranged from 1000 to 10,000 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The normal paraffin substances in this category, including n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, and a substance containing a range of normal paraffins identified as hydrocarbons, C11-C14, containing n-alkanes with less than 2% aromatics, are not expected to demonstrate acute invetebrate toxicity based on results of studies with freshwater and marine invertebrates, including D. magna, C. marinus, and Mysidopsis bahia. Each of these substances has been shown not to demonstrate effects, as measured by immobility or mortality in 48- or 96-hour toxicity studies at the highest loading levels tested, which have ranged from 1000 to 10,000 mg/L.