Registration Dossier

Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The EU RAR reports the findings of a number of reports and reviews; quantification of exposure is not possible.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
European Union Risk Assessment Report: chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium dichromate and potassium dichromate
Author:
European Chemicals Bureau
Year:
2005
Bibliographic source:
3rd. Priority List; Volume 53

Materials and methods

Study type:
other: various studies are summarised in the EU RAR
Endpoint addressed:
skin irritation / corrosion
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Review of published reports and reviews of occupational exposure
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
not applicable

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
The EU RAR covers the following water soluble hexavalent chromium compounds:

chromium trioxide
sodium chromate
sodium dichromate
ammonium dichromate
potassium dichromate

Method

Route of exposure:
dermal
Reason of exposure:
unintentional, occupational
Exposure assessment:
not specified

Results and discussion

Clinical signs:
Direct accidental contact with very acidic or high temperature solutions of highly water-soluble Cr (VI) compounds has resulted in severe burns to human skin.
Results of examinations:
Direct accidental contact with very acidic or high temperature solutions of highly water-soluble Cr (VI) compounds has resulted in severe burns to human skin.

Any other information on results incl. tables

In terms of human experience, direct accidental contact with very acidic or high temperature solutions of highly water-soluble Cr (VI) compounds has resulted in severe burns to human skin. It is not clear from the available reports whether intact skin is damaged by single contact with neutral solutions of such compounds. In one patch test study, some volunteers responded to 0.5% aqueous potassium dichromate with mild irritation especially around hair follicles. In workers regularly exposed to highly water-soluble Cr (VI) in solution, chrome ulcers develop after some initial damage to the skin. This has been described for dye workers handling sodium or potassium dichromate solutions and frequently in exposed workers in the chromate production and chrome plating industries. The severity of the ulcer depends upon the frequency and duration of skin contamination. Small papules develop initially, progressing to an ulcer which penetrates gradually to deeper skin layers. Typically, chrome ulcers have a hard circular periphery and a cavity leading to a base covered with exudate or a crust.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Water soluble Cr (VI) compounds clearly have the potential to cause skin irritation in humans as shown by a number of reports of accidental
occupational exposure. Chromium (VI) trioxide is corrosive.
Executive summary:

The EU RAR concludes, based on reports of accidental occupational exposure, that the highly water soluble Cr (VI) compounds are skin irritants. Chromium (VI) trioxide is corrosive as a consequence of its low pH and the development of 'chrome ulcers' in workers repeatedly exposed to other salts also indicate the potential for skin corrosivity.