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EC number: 905-588-0
CAS number: -
The available data indicate that mixed xylene should be considered to be irritating to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract.
skin corrosion potential was determined by exposing the intact skin of
six rabbits to p-xylene for four hours. The sites of application were
not destroyed or changed irreversibly during or after the exposure.
CHEVRON PARAXYLENE 99% was considered not to be corrosive to the intact
skin of rabbits.
Eye Irritation Score Ranges and Means with
Means based on six observations.
redness (vessels definitely injected above normal to more diffuse,
deeper crimson red, individual vessels not easily discernible) was noted
in all 6 rabbits at 1 h post instillation of o-xylene. Conjunctival
chemosis (swelling above normal) and conjunctival discharge (any amount
above normal) were noted in 5 rabbits at 1 h post instillation.
Phonation at instillation was noted in 4 rabbits. No corneal opacity or
iritis was noted in any of the 6 rabbits. All ocular lesions had cleared
by Day 7.
The multi-constituent substances covered by
this registration comprise individual xylene isomers (m-xylene,
o-xylene, p-xylene) and ethyl benzene (>10% - <20%). The following
information is available to characterise their irritation potential.
Mild-moderate skin irritation was noted in
rats and rabbits treated topically with mixed xylene or the xylene
isomers. The extent of the irritation appeared to increase with duration
of exposure; the most severe dermal irritation ratings were obtained in
the longest exposures of 10-days (Hine, 1970).
The effects of short-term occlusive and
repeated non-occlusive dermal exposure to m-xylene was investigated in
the hairless rat using erythema, transepidermal water loss and skin
moisture content as indicators of dermal irritation (Chatterjee, 2005).
M-xylene was found to be mildly irritating to skin following single
occluded exposure and repeated non-occluded contact and to damage the
barrier function of the skin.
Skin corrosion potential was determined in
one study and this study evaluated p-xylene (Chevron Chemical Company,
1973). The intact skin of six rabbits was exposed to p-xylene for four
hours. The sites of application were not destroyed or changed
irreversibly during or after the exposure and p-xylene was considered
not to be corrosive to the intact skin of rabbits.
As reported in the RAR (2008), single
exposure ethyl benzene is moderately irritating to the skin of rabbits.
Repeated exposure results in erythema and oedema with superficial
necrosis giving a "chapped" appearance and exfoliation of large patches
There is little human information available,
but the ATSDR (2007) reports that dermal exposure of humans to xylene
causes skin irritation, dryness and scaling of the skin, and
Moderate eye irritation was observed in
rabbits treated with mixed xylene. Primary irritation studies in rabbits
using the washed and unwashed eye (HLA, 1983) demonstrated transient eye
irritation (conjunctival redness and oedema) following exposure to
o-xylene. No corneal effects were reported in either study.
Ethyl benzene caused irritation in the eyes
of rabbits and guinea pigs (latter exposed to 5000 and 10000 ppm of ethyl
benzene vapour) (RAR, 2008).
No obvious irritation of the eye was
reported in volunteer studies where individuals were exposed to 442
mg/m3 mixed xylene for 15-30 minutes (SCOEL, 1992; Carpenter, 1975;
High concentrations of ethyl benzene vapours
are irritating to mucous membranes of the eyes (RAR, 2008).
A respiratory tract irritancy study in mice
(HLA, 1983a) reported that exposure to o-xylene at a nominal
concentration of 9480 mg/m3 via air inhalation resulted in very slight
to slight depressions in respiratory rates indicative of very slight to
slight respiratory irritation. For p-xylene at a nominal concentration
of 11580 mg/m3, slight to severe depressions in respiratory rates
indicative of slight to severe respiratory irritation were reported
A sensory irritation study in mice (De
Ceaurriz, 1981) reported a decrease in respiratory rate during a 5
minute period of exposure of mice to the vapour of o-xylene with an RD50
value of 6370 mg/m3.
For ethyl benzene RD50 values of 1432 or
4060 ppm (6215 to 17620 mg/m3) for sensory irritation were determined in
different strains of mice (RAR, 2008).
Mild irritation of the upper respiratory
tract was reported in volunteer studies where individuals were exposed
to 442 mg/m3 xylene for 15-30 minutes (Carpenter, 1975; Hastings, 1984).
No symptoms of nose or throat irritation
have been reported in volunteers exposed to mixed xylene up to 400 ppm
(UK HSC, 2001).
The RAR (2008) reports that high
concentrations of ethyl benzene vapours are irritating to the nose and
UK HSC (2001): European Commission Directive
2000/39/EC establishing a First List of Indicative Occupational Exposure
Limit Values at European Community level in implementation of council
directive 98/24/EC on the protection of the health and safety of workers
from the risks related to chemical agents at work: Consultative Document
Mixed xylenes are
classified as skin irritants under Annex I of the DSD (Xi, R38) and
therefore H315 (skin irritant Cat 2) applies under Annex VI of the CLP
Mixed xylenes are considered to be
irritating to the eyes and warrant classification under DSD (Xi, R36)
which corresponds with a Cat 2 (H319) classification under CLP: induces
reversible eye irritation (conjunctival redness and oedema).
Mixed xylenes are considered to be
irritating to the respiratory system based on the occurrence of
reversible irritant effects in animal studies and should therefore be
classified Xi, R37 Irritating to the respiratory system under DSD and
category 3 (H335) for specific target organ toxicity - single exposure
(STOT-SE) under CLP.
According to the RAR (2008) and transitional
measures,ethylbenzene warrants classification for irritation to the
skin, eyes and respiratory tract (Xi, R36/37/38).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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