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Biodegradation in water

Biodegradability of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 52314 -67 -7) is predicted using QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017) with logKow as the primary descriptor. Test substance undergoes 14.89% degradation by BOD in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl) -2,2- dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethylcyclo propane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7). If released in to the environment, 33.5% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride in water is estimated to be 60 days (1440 hrs). The half-life (60 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to high whereas the half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo propane-1-carbonyl chloride in sediment is estimated to be 541.66 days (13000 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.168%), indicates that 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 55.7% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride in soil is estimated to be 120 days (2880 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 3-(2,2-dichloro ethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 3 -(2,2 -dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethylcyclopropane-1 -carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 52314 -67 -7). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 33.57 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl) -2,2 -dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride  is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 62.3 L/kg (log Koc=1.7945)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane -1-carbonyl chloride has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various predicted data for the target compound 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314-67-7) and supporting weight of evidence studies for its closest read across substance with logKow as the primary descriptor were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with logKow as the primary descriptor, percentage biodegradability of test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 52314-67-7) was estimated.Test substance undergoes 14.89% degradation by BOD in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound 3 -(2,2 -dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethylcyclopropane-1 -carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 52314-67-7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017 and Envichem, 2014) for the read across chemical 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (CAS no. 4390-04-9), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane was determined to be 0% by BOD parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the another read across chemical 1,1,2-trichloroethene (CAS no. 79-01-6), biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1,1,2-trichloroethene (CAS no. 79-01-6) (J-CHECK, 2017). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 1,1,2 -trichloroethene was determined to be 2.4 and 0% by BOD and GC parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1,1,2 -trichloroethene is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride(from OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK and Envichem), it can be concluded that the test substance 3 -(2,2 -dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethylcyclopropane-1 -carbonyl chloride can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethylcyclo propane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7). If released in to the environment, 33.5% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride in water is estimated to be 60 days (1440 hrs). The half-life (60 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to high whereas the half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo propane-1-carbonyl chloride in sediment is estimated to be 541.66 days (13000 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.168%), indicates that 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 55.7% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride in soil is estimated to be 120 days (2880 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 3-(2,2-dichloro ethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment

Various predicted data for the target compound 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314-67-7) were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done using theBCFBAF Program (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 33.57 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

 

In an another prediction done by using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) moduleACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017), the BCF over the entire pH scale (pH 0 -14) of the test substance 3 -(2,2 -dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethyl cyclopropane-1 -carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 52314 -67 -7) was estimated to be 181.

 

Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated using Chemspider database(ChemSpider, 2017). The bioconcentration factor of test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 280.12 at both pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively.

 

SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017) was used for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo propane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 131 (at 25 deg C).

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1- carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 22.7 dimensionless . The predicted BCF result based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride is non-bioaccumulative in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (from EPI suite, ACD labs,ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,  2017), it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride ranges from 22.7– 280.12 which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption/desorption

Various predicted data for the target compound 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 52314-67-7) were reviewed for the adsorption end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done using the KOCWIN Model(v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 62.3 L/kg (log Koc=1.7945)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane -1-carbonyl chloride has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

 

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program as Koc 1439 (log Koc=3.2 ± 1.0) at pH range 0-14 respectively(ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017). This Koc value indicates that the test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to groundwater.

 

In another prediction done using ChemSpider Database (2017), the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 52314 -67 -7) was estimated to be 1965.25 (Log Koc = 3.293) at pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively. This Koc value indicates that the substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to groundwater.

 

Additional soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 52314 -67 -7)was estimated using the SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017).The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 1140 (log Koc = 3.056) (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the adsorption coefficient i.e KOC for test substance 3 -(2,2 -dichloroethenyl)-2,2 -dimethylcyclo propane-1 -carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 213 L/kg (log Koc = 2.328).The predicted KOC result based on the 5 OECD principles. This Koc value indicates that the substance 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

 

On the basis of above overall results for target chemical3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride (from EPI suite, ACD labs,ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,2017), it can be concluded that the Koc value of test substance3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chlorideranges from 62.3 –1965.25 indicating that the test chemical 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carbonyl chloride has a low to moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate to slow migration potential to ground water.