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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Experimental test result performed using standard test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Short term toxicity of test material to aquatic invertebrates was performed according to the OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test) in a static system.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Acetone
Details on test solutions:
The stock solution 100 g/l was prepared by dissolving white powder in acetone. Test solutions of required concentrationas were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with reconstituted test water.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Strain: Straus
- Source: Own breeding at University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): The animals used for the test shall be less than 24 h old and should not be first brood progeny
- Feeding during test: No feeding

ACCLIMATION - No data available
- Acclimation period:
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not):
- Type and amount of food:
- Feeding frequency:
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed):
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
± 1 hr
Test temperature:
20±1°C
pH:
Sample at the concentration 16 mg/l: 7.9 (no change during test)
Control: 7.7 (Change to 7.8 during test)
Control + acetone: 7.9 changes to 7.8 during the test
Dissolved oxygen:
higher than 8.4 mg/L at the end of test
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l nominal concentrations
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 ml glass vessel
- fill volume: 25 ml
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water:
Natural water (surface or ground water), reconstituted water or dechlorinated tap water are acceptable as culturing and dilution water if D. magna survives in it for the duration of the culturing, acclimation and testing without showing signs of stress. Waters in the range pH 6 to pH 9, with hardness between 140 mg/l and 275 mg/l (as CaCO3) are recommended.
As an example, the preparation of dilution water meeting the requirements is described below.
Dissolve known quantities of reagents in water. The dilution water prepared shall have a pH of 7.8 ± 0.5, a hardness of (225 ± 50) mg/l (expressed as CaCO3), a molar Ca + Mg ratio close to 4 + 1 and a dissolved oxygen concentration above 7 mg/l.

Prepare the solutions specified below:
- Calcium chloride solution: Dissolve 117.6 g of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2.2H2O) in water (4.2) and make up to 1 l with water (4.2).
- Magnesium sulfate solution: Dissolve 49.3 g of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4.7H2O) in water (4.2) and make up to 1 l with water (4.2).
- Sodium bicarbonate solution: Dissolve 25.9 g of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in water (4.2) and make up to 1 l with water (4.2).
- Potassium chloride solution: Dissolve 2.3 g of potassium chloride (KCI) in water (4.2) and make up to 1 l with water (4.2).

Mixing
Mix 2.5 ml of each of the four solutions and make up to 1 l with water.
The dilution water shall be aerated until the dissolved oxygen concentration has reached saturation and the pH has stabilized. If necessary, adjust the pH to 7.8 ± 0.5 by adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution or hydrochloric acid (HCI). The dilution water prepared in this way shall not be further aerated before use.

- Sodium hydroxide solution, e.g. [NaOH] : 1 mol/l.
- Hydrochloric acid, e.g. [HCl] : 1 mol/l.

Reference substance:
Dissolve 600 mg of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in water and make up to 1 l with water (4.2).

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no adjustment done
- Photoperiod: No - Darkness
- Light intensity:

CALCULATION:
EC50 was calculated using non linear regression by the software Prism 4.0
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
10.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CI was 9.9-11.9 mg/l
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid
- EC50: 0.88 mg/L (24 hours)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 was calculated using non linear regression by the software Prism 4.0
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Study was condcuted to determine effective concentration of test chemical. Based on the immobilisation of daphnia magna due to the exposure of chemical  for 48 hrs, the median effective concentration EC50 was determine to be 10.9 mg/l.
Executive summary:

Aim of this study was to assess the short term toxicity of test material to aquatic invertebrates daphnia magna. Study was performed according to the OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test) in a static system for the total exposure period of 48 hrs. The stock solution 100 g/l was prepared by dissolving white powder in acetone. Test solutions of required concentrations were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with reconstituted test water. Acetone used as a solvent because of limited solubility of tested sample in water. 0, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l nominal concentrations were used in the study. Effects on immobilisation were observed for 48 hours. With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration EC50 was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance test substance in Daphnia magna was determined to be10.9 mg/L with the confidence interval of 9.9 - 11.9 mg/l on the basis of mobility inhibition effects in a 48 hour study. Based on the EC50 value, it can be concluded that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic invertebrate and can be consider to be classified as aquatic chronic 3 category as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Description of key information

Study was condcuted to determine effective concentration of test chemical. Based on the immobilisation of daphnia magna due to the exposure of chemical  for 48 hrs, the median effective concentration EC50 was determine to be 10.9 mg/l.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
10.9 mg/L

Additional information

Following different studies includes experimental study for the target chemical and read-across analogues which is extracted by using mechanistic approach and functionally and structurally similar to the target chemical to observe the toxicity to test chemical on aquatic invertebrates.

Aim of the first study was to assess the short term toxicity of test material to aquatic invertebrates daphnia magna. Study was performed according to the OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test) in a static system for the total exposure period of 48 hrs. The stock solution 100 g/l was prepared by dissolving white powder in acetone. Test solutions of required concentrations were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with reconstituted test water. Acetone used as a solvent because of limited solubility of tested sample in water. 0, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l nominal concentrations were used in the study. Effects on immobilisation were observed for 48 hours. With the test substance one positive control Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was also run simultaneously. After the exposure of chemical, effect concentration EC50 was calculated using nonlinear regression by the software Prism 4.0. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance test substance in Daphnia magna was determined to be10.9 mg/L with the confidence interval of 9.9 - 11.9 mg/l on the basis of mobility inhibition effects in a 48 hour study. Based on the EC50 value, it can be concluded that the substance is likely to be hazardous to aquatic invertebrate and can be consider to be classified as aquatic chronic 3 category as per the CLP classification criteria.

Second short term toxicity to aquatic Invertebrate study was conducted for 48hrs for assessing the effect of read across chemicalon test organism. 24 h old Daphnia magna(Water flea) was used as a test organism for the study. Thus, effect of test chemical on mortality of the test organismDaphnia magna, the 48 hr LC50 was determined to be ranges from 10 -18 mg/l .Based on the LC50 value, chemical can be considered as toxic to aquatic invertebrates and can be classified as ‘’category chronic-3’’ as per CLP classification criteria.

 

Last short term toxicity to aquatic Invertebrate study was conducted for 48hrs for assessing the effect of read across chemical on test organism at 20°C. Based on effect of test chemical on mortality of the test organism Daphnia magna, the 48 hr NOEC value was determined to be 16.017 mg/l..

Based on the effect of test chemical on test organism, chemical can be considered as toxic to aquatic invertebrates and can be classified as ‘’category chronic-3’’ as per CLP classification criteria.