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EC number: 204-534-7 | CAS number: 122-32-7
The chemical safety assessment according to Annex I of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 does not indicate the need to investigate further the effects on sediment organisms.
No experimental data evaluating the toxicity to sediment organisms is available for 1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleate (CAS No. 122-32-7). Since the substance is readily biodegradable, exposure of sediment organisms is unlikely. Furthermore, the substance is not toxic to aquatic organisms up to the limit of water solubility. In addition, available data indicate,that 1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleate is not bioaccumulative. Based on the available information, toxicity to sediment organisms is not expected to be of concern.
Intrinsic properties and fate
1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleate is readily biodegradable (76.5% biodegradation in 28 days; Coenen, 1991). According to the Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7b, readily biodegradable substances can be expected to undergo rapid and ultimate degradation in most environments, including biological Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) (ECHA, 2008). Therefore, after passing through conventional STPs, only low concentrations of these substances are likely to be (if at all) released into the environment.
Furthermore, the substance exhibits a log Koc value > 5and is insoluble inwater (< 0.05 mg/L). The Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R7.b (ECHA, 2008) states that once insoluble chemicals enter a standard STP, they willbe extensively removed in the primary settling tank and fat trap and thus, only limited amounts will get in contact with activated sludge organisms. Nevertheless, once this contact takes place, these substances are expected to be removed from the water column to a significant degree by adsorption to sewage sludge (Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7a, (ECHA, 2008)) and the rest will be extensively biodegraded (due to ready biodegradability). Thus, discharged concentrations of these substances into the aqueous/sediment compartment are likely to be negligible.
Considering this one can assume that the availability of 1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleate in the sediment environment is generally very low, which reduces the probability of exposure of sediment organisms in general.
Aquatic ecotoxicity data
Acute and chronic (from structurally related analogue substance) aquatic toxicity tests performed on fish, invertebrates, algae and microorganisms showed no adverse effects occurred in the range of the water solubility of the substance(< 0.05 mg/L). The obtained results indicate that 1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleate is likely to show no toxicity to sediment organisms as well.
After absorption,1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleateis expected to be enzymatically hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases yielding the corresponding alcoholand fatty acids. QSAR estimations using BCFBAF v3.01 support the expected rapid biotransformation of this substance with BCF/BAF valuesof 0.89 L/kg (both).
The metabolism of the hydrolysisproducts: alcohol (i.e. glycerol) and fatty acids is well established and not of concern in terms of bioaccumulation. Glycerides, especially triglycerides, are the predominant lipid class in the diet of both marine and freshwater fish. Once ingested, they will be hydrolized into fatty acids and glycerol by a specific group of carboxylesterase (CaE) enzymes (lipases) as reported in different fish species (Tocher, 2003). Part of the free fatty acids will be re-esterified once more with glycerol and partial acyl glycerols to form triglycerides, which will be stored as long-term energy reserves. Glycerol is naturally present in animal and vegetable fats, rarely found in free state (mostly combined with fatty acids forming triglycerides) (ed. Knothe, van Gerpen and Krahl, 2005). If freely available in aquatic organisms, it will not bioaccumulate in view of its log Kow value of -1.76 (OECD SIDS, 2002). Especially in periods in which the energy demand is high (reproduction, migration, etc.), glycerides are mobilized from the storage sites as source of fatty acids. Fatty acid catabolism is the most important energy source in many species of fish, resulting in the release of acetyl CoA and NADH (through β-oxidation) and eventually, via the tricarboxylic cycle, the production of metabolic energy in the form of ATP. This fatty acid-catabolism pathway is the predominant source of energy related to growth, reproduction and development from egg to adult fish. A similar metabolic pathway is observed in mammals (see section 7.1.1 Basic toxicokinetics).
In conclusion, no potential for bioaccumulation is to be expected for 1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleate.
Due to its readily biodegradable nature, extensive degradation of this substance in conventional STPs will take place and only low concentrations are expected to be released (if at all) into the environment. Once present in the aquatic compartment, further biodegradation will occur and, due to the high log Kow, low water solubility and high adsorption potential,1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleatewill be bioavailable to sediment organisms mainly via feed and contact with suspended organic particles.After uptake by sediment species, extensive and fast biotransformation of the substance by carboxylesterases into fatty acids and glycerol is expected. The supporting BCF/BAF values estimated with the BCFBAFv3.01 program, Arnot-Gobas model including biotransformation, also indicate that this substance will not be bioaccumulative (0.89 L/kg). Furthermore, aquatic toxicity data show that no effects occur up to the limit of water solubility. Therefore,1,2,3-propanetriyl trioleateis unlikely to pose a risk for sediment organisms in general and testing is thus omitted.
A detailed reference list is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID, section 13) and within the CSR.
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