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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
The source compound Benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EC 202-311-9, CAS 94-18-8) is considered a suitable read across partner for the target substance Phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EC 241-698-9, CAS 17696-62-7). This read-across is based on the hypothesis that source and target substances have similar toxicological properties because:

- structural similarity of the target and the source substances (the presence or absence of additional functional groups or substituents that could influence the behaviour of a chemical),
- similarity in physico-chemical profile of the source and target substances (water solubility, partitioning behaviour (log Kow value))
Both substances are structural homologues regarding the functional groups at the ester (phenyl vs benzyl group). Both esthers have similar physico-chemical properties. Both are moderately/poorly water soluble (108 g/L vs 0.05 mg/L), exhibit similar log Kow values (3.97 vs 3.21), have similar boiling points (355 °C vs 241 °C) and vapour pressure (3.37x10-6 mm Hg vs 8.17x10-6 mm Hg).
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
0.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 10-d NOEC of the test item to Daphnia magna was determined to be 1.0 mg/L for the endpoint reproduction and < 0.1 mg/L for the endpoint growth.
Executive summary:

The 10-day-chronic toxicity of benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate to Daphnia magna was studied under static renewal conditions. Test species were exposed to control, solvent control, and test chemical at nominal concentrations of 2.0 / 1.0 / 0.5 / 0.25 / 0.125 mg a.i./L.  The 10-day NOEC based on reproduction was 1.0 mg a.i./L.  The sublethal effects included were reproduction and growth.  Production of offsprings in the treated groups indicated that the test item had an effect on the reproduction at concentrations of 2.0 mg a.i./L and higher.  The most sensitive end point was growth with a 10-d LOEC of 0.1 mg/L. A NOEC for the endpoint growth could not be determined, because the tested concentrations were not low enough.

 

This study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for a chronic toxicity study with freshwater invertebrates.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test Organism Age (e.g. 1stinstar): < 24 h

Test Type (Flowthrough Static, Static Renewal): Static renewal

 

Endpoint(s) Effected:  reproduction

NOEC:  1.0 mg a.i./L

LOEC:  2.0 mg a.i./L     

 

Endpoint(s) Effected:  growth

NOEC:  < 0.1 mg a.i./L

LOEC:  0.1 mg a.i./L     

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
The source compound Benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EC 202-311-9, CAS 94-18-8) is considered a suitable read across partner for the target substance Phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EC 241-698-9, CAS 17696-62-7). This read-across is based on the hypothesis that source and target substances have similar toxicological properties because:

- structural similarity of the target and the source substances (the presence or absence of additional functional groups or substituents that could influence the behaviour of a chemical),
- similarity in physico-chemical profile of the source and target substances (water solubility, partitioning behaviour (log Kow value))
Both substances are structural homologues regarding the functional groups at the ester (phenyl vs benzyl group). Both esthers have similar physico-chemical properties. Both are moderately/poorly water soluble (108 g/L vs 0.05 mg/L), exhibit similar log Kow values (3.97 vs 3.21), have similar boiling points (355 °C vs 241 °C) and vapour pressure (3.37x10-6 mm Hg vs 8.17x10-6 mm Hg).
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.84 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
In a study conducted according to the OECD guideline 211 (version 2008) Daphnia magna were exposed to benzyl 4-hydroxy benzoate for 21 days and the number of neonates was evaluated. A 21-d NOEC of 0.84 mg/L was determined for the endpoint reproduction.
Executive summary:

The 21-day-chronic toxicity of benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate to Daphnia magna was studied under static renewal conditions according to the OECD guiedline 211 (version 2008). Test species were exposed to control, and test chemical at five different concentrations (exact amount not specified in paper).  The 21-day NOEC based on reproduction was 0.84 mg a.i./L.  The sublethal effects included were reproduction (cummulative number of neonates).  Production of offspring in the treated groups indicated that the test item had an effect on the reproduction at concentrations of above 0.84 mg a.i./L. 

 

This study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for a chronic toxicity study with freshwater invertebrates.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test Organism Age (e.g. 1stinstar): < 24 h

Test Type (Flowthrough Static, Static Renewal): Static renewal

 

Endpoint(s) Effected:  reproduction

NOEC:  0.84 mg a.i./L

LOEC:  not reported

Description of key information

In a study conducted according to the OECD guideline 211 (version 2008) Daphnia magna were exposed to benzyl 4-hydroxy benzoate for 21 days and the number of neonates was evaluated. A 21-d NOEC of 0.84 mg/L was determined for the endpoint reproduction.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
0.84 mg/L

Additional information