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Physical & Chemical properties

Melting point / freezing point

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Reference
Endpoint:
melting point/freezing point
Type of information:
calculation (if not (Q)SAR)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not applicable
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Guideline:
other: not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The melting temperature of graphene was estimated based on nucleation theory and systematic atomistic Monte Carlo simulations.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
not applicable
Key result
Melting / freezing pt.:
ca. 4 500 °C
Remarks on result:
other: interpolation within homologous series
Conclusions:
The estimated melting point of graphene is approx. 4500 °C.
Executive summary:

Several studies estimated the melting temperature of graphene: Zakharchenko et al. (2011) estimated a melting point of 4626.85 °C, and Los et al. (2015) calculated a melting point of approx. 4510 K (approx. 4237 °C). In line with this, the reported melting point of graphite, which are multiple layers of graphene, are: 6602 °F (3650 °C; NIOSH, 2016; OSHA Occupational Chemical DB) and 6040 °F (approx. 3380 °C; OSHA Chemical Sampling Information). This is further supported by very similar reported melting points for other closely related structures consisting of carbon: 3948 K (~3674,85 °C) for amorphous carbon, 3820 K (~3546,85 °C) as diamant.

Description of key information

Several studies estimated the melting temperature of graphene: Zakharchenko et al. (2011) estimated a melting point of 4626.85 °C, and Los et al. (2015) calculated a melting point of approx. 4510 K (approx. 4237 °C). In line with this, the reported melting point of graphite, which are multiple layers of graphene, are: 6602 °F (3650 °C; NIOSH, 2016; OSHA Occupational Chemical DB) and 6040 °F (approx. 3380 °C; OSHA Chemical Sampling Information). This is further supported by very similar reported melting points for other closely related structures consisting of carbon: 3948 K (~3674,85 °C) for amorphous carbon, 3820 K (~3546,85 °C) as diamant.

The estimated melting point of graphene is approx. 4500 °C.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Melting / freezing point at 101 325 Pa:
4 500 °C

Additional information