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Physical & Chemical properties

Water solubility

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Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Water solubility of the test item graphene was not quantified in this study due to the extreme insolubility of graphene.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Key result
Remarks on result:
other: insoluble
Executive summary:

This study aimed to produce aqueous soluble graphene, as graphene itself is extremely insoluble in water owing to strong dispersion forces between graphene plates. In addition, the authors summarize extensive synthetic efforts which have focused on preparing soluble graphene in various solvents such as PEG or NH2 -PEG-NH2. In addition, it should be noted that surfactants such as sodium cholate or sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate or polymers as stabilizers such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone are required for obtaining aqueous dispersions of the insoluble graphene (Skaltsas et al., 2012). Therefore, this study supports the other sources indicating insolubility of graphene in water.

Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
other: data from safety data sheet
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not applicable
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Guideline:
other: not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No details on method are provided in the safety data sheet.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Key result
Remarks on result:
other: insoluble
Conclusions:
The test item graphene was reported to be insoluble.
Executive summary:

The test item graphene was reported to be insoluble.

Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
other: data from safety data sheet
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not applicable
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Guideline:
other: not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No details on method are provided in the safety data sheet.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Key result
Remarks on result:
other: insoluble
Conclusions:
The test item graphene was reported to be insoluble.
Executive summary:

The test item graphene was reported to be insoluble.

Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
other: data from safety data sheet
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
not applicable
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Guideline:
other: not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No details on method are provided in the safety data sheet.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
not applicable
Key result
Remarks on result:
other: insoluble
Conclusions:
The test item graphene was reported to be insoluble.
Executive summary:

The test item graphene was reported to be insoluble.

Description of key information

The insolubility of graphene in water was reported in several documents and also investigated in a non-guideline study. The test item graphene was found insoluble in water, no quantitative key value can be derived.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The result of the study drawn from Park et al., 2011 is in line with information in secondary literature. In line with that, graphite, which consists of multiple layers of graphene, was described as inorganic substance that is not soluble in water in the disseminated ECHA dossier.