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Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Non-standard method; exposure duration too short (> 1 day) compared to OECD standard guideline 305 (> 28 days).
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Tests with sodium tungstate dihydrate and sodium metatungstate according to OECD guidelines 203 and 204 were conducted to determine the acute and prolonged toxicity of the test substances to Poecilia reticulata. In parallel, the uptake of tungsten was determined in 10 fish used in these experiments (4 fish from the control group and 3 fish per test chemical). These fish all died during the first 24 h after they were exposed to respectively 1.5 g sodium metatungstate/L and 7.5 g sodium tungstate/L.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Poecilia reticulata
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
static
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
1 d
Nominal and measured concentrations:
- Sodium metatungstate: 1.5 g/L;
- Sodium tungstate: 7.5 g/L.
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.51 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 0.51 ± 0.24 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:1.5 g/L sodium metatungstate
Type:
BCF
Value:
2.74 L/kg
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 2.74 ± 1.32 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:1.5 g/L sodium metatungstate
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.29 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 0.29 ± 0.94 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:7.5 g/L sodium tungstate
Type:
BCF
Value:
1.57 L/kg
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 1.57 ± 0.5 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:7.5 g/L sodium tungstate

The measured average c(W) fish are 540 ± 260, 1230 ± 390, and 30 ± 2 mg W/kg fish for sodium metatungstate, sodium tungstate, and control fish, respectively.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Sodium tungstate and sodium metatungstate have a low potential for bioaccumulation.
Executive summary:

Tests with sodium tungstate dihydrate and sodium metatungstate according to OECD guidelines 203 and 204 were conducted to determine the acute and prolonged toxicity of the test substances to Poecilia reticulata. In parallel, the uptake of tungsten was determined in 10 fish used in these experiments (4 fish from the control group and 3 fish per test chemical). These fish all died during the first 24 h after they were exposed to respectively 1.5 g sodium metatungstate/L and 7.5 g sodium tungstate/L (nominal concentrations).

BCF was calculated as the ratio of tungsten concentration in fish tissue (in mg W per kg wet or dry weight) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L). BCF was calculated on both wet and dry weight of fish. BCF values for sodium tungstate were calculated as 0.29 ± 0.94 L/kg and 1.57 ± 0.5 L/kg wet and dry weight, respectively. The BCF values for sodium metatungstate are reported to be 0.51 ± 0.24 L/kg and 2.74 ± 1.32 L/kg wet weight and dry weight, respectively.

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance.
For details and justification of read-across please refer to IUCLID section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.51 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 0.51 ± 0.24 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:1.5 g/L sodium metatungstate
Type:
BCF
Value:
2.74 L/kg
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 2.74 ± 1.32 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:1.5 g/L sodium metatungstate
Type:
BCF
Value:
0.29 L/kg
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 0.29 ± 0.94 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:7.5 g/L sodium tungstate
Type:
BCF
Value:
1.57 L/kg
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Calculation basis:
other: Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).
Remarks on result:
other: BCF = 1.57 ± 0.5 L/kg
Remarks:
Conc.in environment / dose:7.5 g/L sodium tungstate

Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of tungsten were estimated as the ratio between tungsten concentration in fish tissues (in mg of W per kg of wet or dry tissue) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L).

The measured average c(W) fish are 540 ± 260, 1230 ± 390, and 30 ± 2 mg W/kg fish for sodium metatungstate, sodium tungstate, and control fish, respectively.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Sodium tungstate and sodium metatungstate have a low potential for bioaccumulation.
Executive summary:

Tests with sodium tungstate dihydrate and sodium metatungstate according to OECD guidelines 203 and 204 were conducted to determine the acute and prolonged toxicity of the test substances to Poecilia reticulata. In parallel, the uptake of tungsten was determined in 10 fish used in these experiments (4 fish from the control group and 3 fish per test chemical). These fish all died during the first 24 h after they were exposed to respectively 1.5 g sodium metatungstate/L and 7.5 g sodium tungstate/L (nominal concentrations).

BCF was calculated as the ratio of tungsten concentration in fish tissue (in mg W per kg wet or dry weight) to tungsten concentration in water (in mg/L). BCF was calculated on both wet and dry weight of fish. BCF values for sodium tungstate were calculated as 0.29 ± 0.94 L/kg and 1.57 ± 0.5 L/kg wet and dry weight, respectively. The BCF values for sodium metatungstate are reported to be 0.51 ± 0.24 L/kg and 2.74 ± 1.32 L/kg wet weight and dry weight, respectively.

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance.

For details and justification of read-across please refer to IUCLID section 13.

Description of key information

No data on bioaccumulation or levels of tungsten hexachloride in aquatic organisms are available.

The limited bioaccumulation/bioconcentration data for aquatic species available for sodium tungstate show low BCFs

in Poecilia reticulata (0.29 +/- 0.94 L/kg wet weight and 1.57 +/- 0.5 L/kg dry weight for sodium tungstate; 0.51 ± 0.24 L/kg and 2.74 ± 1.32 L/kg wet weight and dry weight for

sodium metatungstate).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance.

For details and justification of read-across please refer to IUCLID section 13.