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EC number: 200-578-6 | CAS number: 64-17-5
Estimation of ethanol intake in mg/kg:
It is estimated that the calorific intake of an adult rat is 70 - 75kcal/day. (Corwin, Appetite, 42(2), 139 -42, 2004). A commercial laboratory rodent chow has a metabolisable energy content of 2.91 kcal/g (Lab rodent diet 5001, labdiet.com). Assuming food consumption of 10g/100g/day (Biomethodology of the rat, animal research, Iowa Univ - 2009) and an average weight of rat of 264g (this study) would equate to an energy consumption of 76kcal/day. These are quite consistent - an average of 73kcal/day is used.
Ethanol has a calorific value of 6.9kcal/g. Therefore, the following approximations for the doses received can be calculated:
Blood ethanol concentrations reported were:
no figure was reported for the low dose group.
Groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were given liquid diets with 15, 25, or 36% ethanol-derived calories (E15, E25, and E36 groups, respectively), or without ethanol (pair-fed isocaloric (PF15, PF25, PF36) or ad libitum (C) control) for 3 weeks prior to mating, and throughout 21 days of gestation.
Prenatal ethanol exposure at 36% ethanol-derived calories (E36; about 10.4 g ethanol/kg bw/day) decreased fetal body weight and length, and skeletal ossification (a developmental delay estimated at 0.5 day), compared with pair-fed (PF36) and ad libitum controls at GD 21. Significant effects on ossification, but not body weight or length, were seen at E25 (corresponding to a dose of about 8.2 g ethanol/kg bw/day), compared to PF25 isocaloric controls. The NOAEL for this study can be considered to be 5.2 g ethanol/kg bw/day, as at this dose level (E15), no significant effects on fetal growth or ossification were seen compared to the PF15 isocaloric controls. A delay in the development of body weight and skeletal ossification was seen in the ethanol-treated (E25 and E36) fetuses on GD21, compared to the ab libitum controls. There were no skeletal malformations or variations (other than the delay in ossification) reported for any of the ethanol-treated groups.
The data indicate that ethanol has differential effects on fetal weight and skeletal development, and that the skeletal sites differ in their sensitivity to ethanol.
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