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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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Administrative data

First-aid measures

After inhalation

Fresh air. Get medical attention if pain still persists.

After skin contact

Wash off immediately with soap and water.

After eye contact

Separate eyelids, wash the eyes thoroughly with water (15 min.).

After ingestion

Rinse out mouth and give plenty of water to drink. Seek medical attention.

Fire-fighting measures

Suitable extinguishing media

Water spray jet; Dry sand

Extinguishing media that must not be used for safety reasons

Full water jet; Foam

Special exposure hazards arising from the substance or preparation itself, combustion products, resulting gases

In case of fires, hazardous combustion gases are formed: Lead fumes; Lead oxide

Special protective equipment for fire-fighters

Appropriate breathing apparatus may be required. Wear protective clothing.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions

Ensure adequate ventilation. Avoid dust formation. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing.

Environmental precautions

Do not discharge into the drains/surface waters/groundwater. In case of entry into waterways, soil or drains, inform the responsible authorities.

Methods for cleaning up/taking up

Collect mechanically (preferably in dry condition). Send in suitable containers for recovery or disposal. When picked up, treat material as prescribed under heading "Disposal considerations".

Handling and storage


Advice on safe handling

Provide good ventilation of working area (local exhaust ventilation, if necessary).

Advice on protection against fire and explosion

The product is not combustible.


Requirements for storage rooms and vessels

No special measures required.

Advice on storage assembly

Do not store together with foodstuffs. Do not store together with animal feedstocks. Do not store with acids or alkalies. Do not store with combustible materials.

Further information on storage conditions

No special measures necessary.

Transport information

Land transport (UN RTDG/ADR/RID)

UN number:
Not classified
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Inland waterway transport (UN RTDG/ADN(R))

UN number:
Not classified
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Marine transport (UN RTDG/IMDG)

UN number:
Not classified
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Air transport (UN RTDG/ICAO/IATA)

UN number:
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Exposure controls / personal protection

OELs - Lead and inorganic compounds (as Pb):

EU              0.15 mg/m³  (under review)

Austria              0.1 mg/m³

Belgium              0.15 mg/m³

Denmark              0.05 mg/m³

Finland              0.1 mg/m³

France              0.1 mg/m³

Germany (AGS)       0.1 mg/m³

Ireland              0.15 mg/m³

Italy              0.15 mg/m³

Latvia              0.005 mg/m³

Poland              0.05 mg/m³

Spain              0.15 mg/m³

Sweden              0.1 mg/m³

Switzerland              0.1 mg/m³

UK              0.15 mg/m³

Biological action levels, inorganic lead:

EU       70 µg/dL (Binding Limit Value) (under review)

Germany       40 µg/dL

      10 µg/dL (for woman, age below 45 years) [Suspended]

France       40 µg/dL

      30 µg/dL µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)

Ireland       70 µg/dL

Spain       70 µg/dL

UK       60 µg/dL

      30 µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)

DNELs for workers:

Exposure pattern:       Long-term - systemic effects

Route:              Systemic (μg lead /dL blood)

DNEL:              40 μg/dL - Adult neurological function;

             10 μg/dL - Developmental effect on foetus of pregnant women

Ecological toxicity values

The following Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were used to determine the environmental risk:

Exposure pattern              Route              Descriptor                                   PNEC

Long-term – chronic effects       Freshwater              PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)              2.4 μg Pb/L (dissolved)

Long-term – chronic effects       Marine              PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)              3.3 μg Pb/L (dissolved)

Long-term – chronic effects       Freshwater Sediment       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)              186 mg Pb/kg dw1 / 49.7 mg Pb/kg dw2

Long-term – chronic effects       Marine Sediment       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)              168 mg Pb/kg dw

Long-term – chronic effects       Soil              PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)              212 mg Pb/kg dw

Long-term – chronic effects       Sewage Treatment Plant       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)              0.1 mg Pb/L

1: without bioavailability correction; 2: with bioavailability correction

Organisational measures

Personal Hygiene: Ensure workers follow simple hygiene rules (e.g. do not bite nails and keep them cut short, avoid touching or scratching face with dirty hands or gloves); Ensure workers do not wipe away sweat with hands or arms; Ensure workers use disposable tissues rather than a handkerchief; Prohibit drinking, eating and smoking in production areas,  or access to eating and non-production areas in working clothes; Ensure workers wash hands, arms, faces and mouths (but preferably shower) and change into clean clothing before entering eating areas; For high exposure workplaces, separate rooms for cleaning hands, removal of clothes, showers and clean clothes may be necessary; Ensure workers handle dirty working clothes with care; Allow no personal belongings to be taken into production areas, or items that have been used in production areas to be taken home. Ensure general shop cleanliness is maintained by frequent washing/vacuuming. Clean every workplace at the end of every shift.

Blood lead monitoring: Set in place a certified monitoring regime which covers all site activities; Define a policy for submitting workers to regular blood lead monitoring, including increased frequency for workers undertaking high-risk jobs and workers with elevated blood lead levels; Ensure all workers have a blood test prior to working on site. Set an “action level” that is typically 5 µg/dL below the exposure limit deemed to be safe. If the action level is exceeded, appropriate measures are to be taken, to prevent further increases in blood lead. If the safe threshold  is exceeded, continue or begin ban on overtime, ensure strict hygiene procedures are followed, undertake detailed inspections to ensure correct use of personal protective equipment, undertake detailed inspections to ensure recommended workplace procedures are followed, move employee to workplace where exposure is expected to be lower or remove from lead environment altogether, further increase blood lead sampling frequency, and continue frequent sampling until results are below the first action level.

Personal Protection Equipment

Respiratory protection: Suitable respiratory protective device recommended. In case of brief exposure or low pollution use dust mask or half mask with particle filter P2. Assess the need to wear respiratory protective equipment in production areas. Consider use effective masks accompanied by a compliance policy (ensure proper shaving; ensure workers do not remove RPE in production areas in order to communicate). Where masks are used, employ formal mask cleaning and filter changing strategies.

Hand Protection: Protective gloves. Material of gloves: Neoprene or Leather.

Eye protection: Safety glasses.

Skin protection: Wear protective work clothing. For workers in areas of significant exposure, provide sufficient working clothes to enable daily change into clean clothes. In such cases all work clothing should be cleaned by the employer on a daily basis and is not permitted to leave the work site.

Environmental Protection

One or more of the following measures may if necessary be taken to reduce emissions to water:

•       Chemical precipitation: used primarily to remove the metal ions

•       Sedimentation

•       Filtration: used as final clarification step

•       Electrolysis: for low metal concentration

•       Reverse osmosis: extensively used for the removal of dissolved metals

•       Ion exchange: final cleaning step in the removal of heavy metal from process wastewater

One or more of the following measures may if necessary be taken to reduce emissions to air:

•       Electrostatic precipitators using wide electrode spacing: Wet electrostatic precipitators:

•       Cyclones, but as primary collector Fabric or bag filters: high efficiency in controlling fine particulate (melting): achieve emission values Membrane filtration techniques can achieve

•       Ceramic and metal mesh filters. PM10 particles are removed

•       Wet scrubbers

Lead removal from treatment works should be at least the minimum default 84% removal used in the CSR. Solid material collected from on-site treatment must be sent for metal recovery or treated as hazardous waste. Waste water treatment sludge must be recycled, incinerated or landfilled and not used as agricultural fertiliser

Stability and reactivity

Eye protection: Safety glasses

Body protection: Protective work clothing.

Disposal considerations

Waste treatment methods


Allocation of a waste code number, according to the European Waste Catalogue, should be carried out in agreement with the regional waste disposal company.

Disposal should be done in accordance with national or regional regulations. The burden of proof must be satisfied. Unused product and residual quantities may be recycled in primary / secondary lead smelting works (waste management facilities).


Dispose of in accordance with federal, state and local regulations.