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EC number: 231-100-4
CAS number: 7439-92-1
Table 1-Comparison of the Cutaneous Penetration of lead From Four
The measure of penetration of lead is the storage of lead in the kidneys
of the rat
Table 2-The Total Amount of lead Distributed In The Carass and Tissues
of the Rat Following Exposure to 106 mg. lead as Lead Tetraethyl.
Rats were lightly anesthetized and preparations of lead acetate (77 mg Pb/rat), lead ortho arsenate (102 mg Pb/rat) or lead oleate (148 mg Pb/rat) were applied to an area of 29 square centimeters of clipped dorsal skin. In some experiments, mechanical injury to the skin was induced prior to application. The substances were rubbed in for two minutes with a glass rod, then, without removal of excess, the animals were wrapped in a cylindrical celluloid shield cemented to the body at the shoulders and hips, which prevented bending of the body and oral contact with the shield. After 24 or 48 hours, animals were sacrificed and various organs were removed for measurement of lead. An equal number of control animals were analyzed with each exposure. In the experiments with lead oleate in petrolatum vehicle, the concentration of lead in kidney and in skin from the leg was higher in treated animals compared to controls. The lead concentration was not higher in liver, muscle, lung, brain, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, or thigh bone. Absorption of lead acetate and lead oleate, as measured in the kidney, was higher when applied to skin that underwent mechanical injury. A comparison of the absorption of lead in the kidney from lead oleate, lead acetate, and lead arsenate indicated that absorption of lead arsenate was similar to control values. The absorption of lead acetate appeared to be higher than that of lead oleate, but the difference was not statistically significant. Absorption of lead from these three lead compounds was also compared to that of lead tetraethyl. Measurements of lead in kidneys were 10- to 20-fold higher with lead tetraethyl than with the three nonvolatile lead compounds. The authors concluded that: (1) cutaneous absorption of lead oleate, lead acetate, and lead arsenate, as measured by the storage of lead in the kidneys, is extremely small; (2) mechanical injury to the skin increases the penetration of lead; and (3) the absorption of lead tetraethyl is much higher, with concentrations of lead in the kidneys being 10- to 20-fold higher than the three nonvolatile lead compounds.
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