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Exposure related observations in humans: other data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 1998 to 1999
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment.
Cross-referenceopen allclose all
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Estimation of the Dietary Intake of Pesticide Residues, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic and Radionuclides in France
Author:
Leblanc JC, Malmauret L, Guérin T, Bordet F, Boursier B and Verger P
Year:
2000
Bibliographic source:
Food. Addit. Contam. 17(11): 925-32

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Type of experience: Human - Exposure through Food
Endpoint addressed:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A study was conducted to assess the exposure to pesticide residues and other contaminants.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 10 pesticides (omethoate, oxydemeton, phosalon, phosphamidon, triazophos, dicofol (op' + pp'), parathion ethyl, dichlorvos, procymidon and vinchlozolin), three heavy metals (lead, cadmium and arsenic) and three radionuclides (134caesium, 137caesium and 131iodine)

Method

Ethical approval:
not specified
Details on study design:
- Taking into account seasonal variations, number of persons (between 10,000 and 20,000/day) and different population groups aged from 8 to 80 y old eating in different places (work place, school, university, hospital and retired person canteens), meal samples (breakfast and lunch) in duplicate were purchased in five areas throughout France, in 24 and 23 restaurants respectively during spring/summer 1998 and autumn/winter 1998/1999.
- Samples (solid and liquid parts, separately) were prepared, cooked and stored at -20°C prior to analysis
- Contaminants analysed: Samples were tested for the residues of 10 pesticides (omethoate, oxydemeton, phosalon, phosphamidon, triazophos, dicofol (op' + pp'), parathion ethyl, dichlorvos, procymidon and vinchlozolin), three heavy metals (lead, cadmium and arsenic) and three radionuclides (134caesium, 137caesium and 131iodine)
Exposure assessment:
measured
Details on exposure:
none

Results and discussion

Results:
- Average cadmium content in lunch samples was 12 µg/kg with a maximum of 50 µg/kg.
- Average content in breakfast samples was 7 µg/kg with a maximum of 10 µg/kg.
- Average intake was then estimated at 7.5 µg/meal/person for lunch and at 2.4 µg/meat/person for breakfast. Average estimated daily intake was then calculated to be 17 µg/day/person.
- There were no significant differences according to location of the sampling or date of purchase.

Any other information on results incl. tables

- The average intake was estimated at 17 µg/day/person and represents 28% of the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 1993). It is lower than the intakes calculated by the Ministere de la Sante Publique et de l’ Assurance Maladie (1992) by the same method (23 µg/day/person), and by combining individual consumption and contamination data (20 µg/day/person) (Decloitre 1998).

- It can be noted that the most contaminated meals all contain spinach, kidney or seafood. The average intake, evaluated at 17 µg/day/person in this study is near the mean of those evaluated in other European countries (8-29 µg/ day/person), and similar to those published in(11-29 pig/day/person) (Urieta and Jalon 1999), and in(17 pig/day/person) (National Food Agency 1995). At the international level the range of the average intake, for a 60 kg adult, is between 11 µg/day in theand 57 µg/day in(European Commission 1996). These variations can be easily explained by the difference in dietary habits between countries. In particular, in the French diet, consumption of foods like spinach, seafood and offals, known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, can explain the variation. Reduction of cadmium contamination can be explained by good agriculture practice, which uses fertilizers low in cadmium and restricts disposal of sewage sludge on crop land.

 
Results of the analyses show that 53% of the data obtained for cadmium are above LOQ

Table: Distribution of the intake of heavy metals of the Lunch and breakfeast meals (solid + liquid part, n=1O3, data <LOQ=LOQ).
-------------------------------------------------------                      
       Cadmium (µg/meal)
         Breakfast (n=10)  
Maximum                4.0
97.5th percentile      3.9
Mean                   2.4
Median                 2.1
Minimum                1.5
SD                     0.7
         Lunch (n=93)
Maximum                32.0
97.5th percentile  26.4
Mean      7.5
Median     5.4
Minimum    2.6
SD       5.9
-------------------------------------------------------

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The average cadmium content in lunch and dinner samples was calculated to be 12 µg/kg (maximum: 50 µg/kg) and 7 µg/kg (maximum: 10 µg/kg), respectively. The average intake for lunch and breakfast was calculated to be 7.5 and 2.4 µg/meat/person, respectively. Average estimated daily intake was then calculated to be 17 µg/day/person. Moreover, there were no significant differences according to location of the sampling or date of purchase.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to assess the exposure to pesticide residues and other contaminants.

 

Taking into account seasonal variations, number of persons (between 10,000 and 20,000/day) and different population groups aged from 8 to 80 y old eating in different places (work place, school, university, hospital and retired person canteens), meal samples (breakfast and lunch) in duplicate were purchased in five areas throughout France, in 24 and 23 restaurants respectively during spring/summer 1998 and autumn/winter 1998/1999. Samples (solid and liquid parts, separately) were prepared, cooked and tested for the residues of 10 pesticides (omethoate, oxydemeton, phosalon, phosphamidon, triazophos, dicofol (op' + pp'), parathion ethyl, dichlorvos, procymidon and vinchlozolin), three heavy metals (lead, cadmium and arsenic) and three radionuclides (134caesium, 137caesium and 131iodine).                     

 

The average cadmium content in lunch and dinner samples was calculated to be 12 µg/kg (maximum: 50 µg/kg) and 7 µg/kg (maximum: 10 µg/kg), respectively. The average intake for lunch and breakfast was calculated to be 7.5 and 2.4 µg/meat/person, respectively. Average estimated daily intake was then calculated to be 17 µg/day/person. Moreover, there were no significant differences according to location of the sampling or date of purchase.