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Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
monitoring data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication which meets basic scientific principles

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Levels of rare earth elements in dutch drinking water and its sources. Determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and toxicological implications. A pilot study.
Author:
de Boer, J.L.M. et al.
Year:
1996
Bibliographic source:
Wat. Res. 30(1): 190-198

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
The determination of rare earth elements (REE) in water samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was evaluated with respect to selection of isotopes, detection limits, precision, matrix effects, and spectral interferences. The method was applied to raw and drinking water samples of 18 groundwater stations and two surface water stations, and to samples taken from the rivers Rhine and Meuse and from Lake IJsselmeer.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of measurement:
background concentration
Media:
other: drinking water and surface water

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): rare earth elements (REE), analysed as Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu
(Gd-Lu)

Study design

Details on sampling:
Samples were taken from 20 drinking water stations and from the rivers Rhine and Meuse. Fifteen stations used groundwater for the preparation of drinking water and two stations used surface water. At the remaining three stations groundwater was pumped after infiltration of surface water. At one of these stations infiltration was applied of Rhine water after a prepurification step, at a second one bank infiltration from the River Noord (a side-arm of the River Rhine) and at a third station infiltration of water from a canal after prepurification by coagulation with aluminium salts. The water of the canal itself was also sampled.
For each station an unfiltered and filtered sample was analyzed as well as the final product (no filtration).

Results and discussion

Concentrationopen allclose all
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
river Meuse
Substance or metabolite:
other: element La
Conc.:
0.228 µg/L
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
river Rhine
Substance or metabolite:
other: element La
Conc.:
0.513 µg/L
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
Lake Ijsselmeer
Substance or metabolite:
other: element La
Conc.:
< 0.01 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: detection limit

Any other information on results incl. tables

At 8 of the 22 locations sampled (4 of the 15 "true" groundwater stations) REE (with the exception of Y) at concentration levels above the detection limits were found in the raw unfiltered water (only results for La shown here):

Location

type

pH

total carbon

La (ng/L)

Station 1

raw

7.05

71

1729

 

raw filtered

 

 

1004

 

endproduct

7.92

85

199

Station 2

raw

7.04

60

7653

 

raw filtered

 

 

5603

 

endproduct

7.89

86

8693

Station 3

raw

6.13

21

2269

 

raw filtered

 

 

2292

 

endproduct

7.91

65

1749

Station 4

raw

5.44

15

13063

 

raw filtered

 

 

13186

 

endproduct

7.78

165

26

Station 5

raw

6.89

85

235

 

raw filtered

 

 

197

 

endproduct

8.04

110

27

canal

raw

7.4

90

757

 

raw filtered

 

 

220

Station 6

raw

8.07

142

405

 

raw filtered

 

 

5

 

endproduct

7.95

137

8

Meuse

raw

 

 

228

Rhine

raw

 

 

513

The filtration step during the sampling procedure reflects the ratio of dissolved REE/particle-bound plus particulate REE.

At a pH of 5.44 and 6.13 the REE are totally dissolved and even at a pH of 7.04-7.05 about 50% of the amount of REE can be present in the dissolved form even for higher concentrations of REE.

The REE in groundwater could effectively be removed by aeration followed by filtration over a carbonate-based mineral. When the treatment procedure was limited to addition of sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide no reduction of REE concentrations was observed.

Range of background values of REE in Dutch sandy topsoils of nature reserves (Edelman and de Bruin, 1986): 3.16 -14 µg La/g.

Taken into account limited toxicological effect studies concerning REEs indicative admissible drinking water concentrations (iAC) were calculated by adding relevant safety factors (iAC for La: 2µg/L).

Applicant's summary and conclusion