Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Dermal studies:

One sub-acute dermal study is available for assessment of the dermal repeated dose toxicity of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA):

In a repeated dermal toxicity study (Cytec, 1979) 5 New Zealand White rabbits per sex and dose received topical application of 0 or 500 mg/kg bw TMPTA (500 mg/kg bw) to the back, once daily for 5 days per week for 2 weeks. Six animals per group were sacrificed after 15 days and the remaining 4 animals after 30 days. Animals treated with TMPTA exhibited severe erythema with necrotic skin and eschar formation, oedema, atonia, fissuring of the skin, desquamation and exfoliation of eschar tissue. Signs of severe irritation persisted in most animals throughout the post-treatment period. Motor activity decreased, and nasal discharge occurred in several animals in the treated group. Few animals exhibited slight body weight losses. Microscopic examination of selected tissues revealed no evidence of systemic toxicity resulting from administration of TMPTA. Evaluation of treated skin revealed severe necrosis of the epithelium and upper dermis (after 15 days) and epithelial and sub epithelial dermal necrosis (after 30 days). In conclusion, as no systemic substance related effects were observed the systemic NOAEL of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was considered to be ≥ 500 mg/kg bw.

Other dermal studies are available but these are disregarded due to the use of acetone as vehicle. Acetone is an inappropriately vehicle for dermal application as acetone is very drying to the skin, and thus, required to be classified with the hazard phrase EUH066 (mandatory classification as listed in (EC) No 1272/2008, Annex VI with Index number: 606‐001‐00‐8: repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking). It is evaluated that this could be a confounding factor for the evaluation of the systemic toxicity of TMPTA and the study is therefore disregarded for further evaluation and not ued in the overall evaluation of repeated dose toxicity:

Oral studies:

A valid sub-acute oral toxicity study is available to assess the repeated dose toxicity of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) from oral application (OECD TG 422).

In the main study ,TMPTA was administered by daily oral gavage to male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day. Males were exposed for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination (for 29 days). The females were exposed for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during gestation, and at least 4 days of lactation (for 41-55 days).

The dose levels used in the OECD 422 study was based on the results form a non-GLP pilot study. In this, TMPTA was administered by oral gavage, once daily for 14 consecutive days, to Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day (5 animals/sex/dose level). Based on the results (i.e. lower body weights in males at 1000 mg/kg/day, local toxicity at the stomach in both males and females from 100 mg/kg/day onwards, and slightly higher liver weights in females at 1000 mg/kg/day), the dose levels selected for the definitive OECD 422 study were 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day.

In the main study, treatment with TMPTA at dose levels of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day revealed parental toxicity at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day (both sexes). There were only adverse local morphologic alterations in the non-glandular part of the stomach, the forestomach, which represented a local irritating effect of the test substance rather than a systemic effect. No treatment-related toxicologically significant changes were noted in any of the remaining parental parameters investigated in this study (i. e. clinical appearance, functional observations, body weight, food consumption, clinical laboratory investigations and organ weights).

Based on these results, a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day for local toxicity and a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg bw/day for systemic toxicity could be derived for parental toxicity (F0). No higher doses could be tested due to test substance related local toxicity on the non-glandular part of the stomach (i. e. the forestomach) at doses of 100 mg/kg/day and higher.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity: oral, other
Remarks:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2015-03-02 to 2015-04-28
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study performed in accordance to OECD testing guideline with no deviation to study plan (See attached study report)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
NA
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Rat: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Nulliparous and non-pregnant females and untreated animals were used at initiation of the study.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany (This species and strain of rat has been recognized as appropriate for general and reproduction toxicity studies. WIL Research Europe B.V. has general and reproduction/developmental historical data in this species from the same strain and source).
- Age at study initiation: Approximately 10-12 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 220 g (female); 320 (male)
- Fasting period before study: no

- Housing:
- Pre-mating: Animals were housed in groups of 5 animals/sex/cage in Macrolon plastic cages (MIV type, height 18 cm).
- Mating Females: were caged together with males on a one-to-one-basis in Macrolon plastic cages (MIII type, height 18 cm).
- Post-mating: Males were housed in their home cage (Macrolon plastic cages, MIV type, height 18 cm) with a maximum of 5 animals/cage. Females were in dividually housed in Macrolon plastic cages (MIII type, height 18 cm).
- Lactation Pups were kept with the dam until termination in Macrolon plastic cages (MIII type, height 18 cm). During locomotor activity monitoring of the
dams the pups were kept warm in their home cage using bottles filled with warm water. In order to avoid hypothermia of pups, pups were not left without their dam or a bottle filled with warm water for longer than 30-40 minutes.

- Diet (ad libitum): pelleted rodent diet (SM R/M-Z from SSNIFF®Spezialdiäten GmbH, Soest, Germany).
- Water (ad libitum): Free access to tap-water
- Acclimation period: At least 5 days prior to start of treatment.
- Other: Diet, water, bedding and cage-enrichment/nesting material evaluation for contaminants and/or nutrients was performed according to facility standard procedures.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 18 to 24°C
- Humidity (%): 40 to 70%,
- Air changes (per hr): 10 room air changes/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hour light / 12 hour dark

Sterilized sawdust as bedding material (Lignocel S 8-15, JRS - J.Rettenmaier & Söhne GmbH + CO. KG, Rosenberg, Germany) and paper as cage-enrichment/nesting material (Enviro-dri, Wm. Lillico & Son (Wonham Mill Ltd), Surrey, United Kingdom) were supplied. During locomotor activity monitoring, animals were housed individually in a Hitemp polycarbonate cage (Ancare corp., USA; dimensions: 48.3 x 26.7 x 20.3 cm) without cage-enrichment, bedding material, food and water.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
polyethylene glycol
Remarks:
(Polyethylene glycol 400, specific gravity 1.125)
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
Formulations (w/w) were prepared daily within 5 hours prior to dosing and were homogenized to a visually acceptable level. Adjustment was made for specific gravity of the test substance and vehicle. No correction was made for the purity/composition of the test substance. Formulations were placed on a magnetic stirrer during dosing.

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 6, 20, 60 mg/mL
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5 mL/kg bw
- Lot/batch no.: Polyethylene glycol 400, specific gravity 1.125 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Samples of dose preparations were taken at the Test Facility on two occasions during the treatment period (formulations were prepared and sampled on 04 and 31 March 2015). The samples were dispatched on dry ice to ABL where they were analyzed to assess accuracy of preparation (all groups) and homogeneity (lowest and highest concentration). In addition, stability in vehicle over 5 hours at room temperature protected from light was determined on samples (lowest and highest concentration) taken on 04 March 2015.

The accuracy of preparation was considered acceptable if the mean measured concentrations were 90-110% of the target concentration. Homogeneity was demonstrated if the coefficient of variation was ≤ 10%. Formulations were considered stable if the relative difference before and after storage was maximally 10%.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were exposed for 29 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy. Females were exposed for 41-55 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation (up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy).
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily for 7 days per week, approximately the same time each day with a maximum of 6 hours difference between the earliest and latest dose.
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 30. 100, 300 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Dose / conc.:
30 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10/sex/group
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Dose levels were selected based on the outcome of the previous dose range finding study with Wistar Han rats (Project 507633). TMPTA was administered by oral gavage, once daily for 14 consecutive days at dose levels of 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day (5 animals/sex/dose level). Concurrent controls (5 animals/sex) received the vehicle, polyethylene glycol 400, alone. The most relevant effects in this 14-days dose range finding study included lower body weights in males at 1000 mg/kg/day, local toxicity at the stomach in both males and females from 100 mg/kg/day onwards, and slightly higher liver weights in females at 1000 mg/kg/day. Based on these data, the dose levels selected for the current, definitive study (Project 507632) were 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day.

- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): random
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: none included
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: NA
- Section schedule rationale (if not random): random
Positive control:
None included in the study design
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Parental animals (F0):

CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily
Each male and female was also observed for signs of toxicity immediately following dosing and at approximately 1 hour following dose administration.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Daily from treatment onwards up to the day prior to necropsy, detailed clinical observations were made for all animals. Once prior to start of
treatment and at weekly intervals during the treatment period this was also performed outside the home cage in a standard arena. These clinical observations were at least conducted immediately (0-30 min) after dosing, i.e. on the peak period of anticipated effects after dosing based on results of the dose range finding study (Project 507633). In this pilot study salivation was noted shortly after dosing. The time of onset, grade and duration of any observed sign was recorded. Signs were graded for severity and the maximum grade was predefined at 3 or 4. Grades were coded as slight (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), severe (grade 3) and very severe (grade 4). For certain signs, only its presence (grade 1) or absence (grade 0) was scored. In the data tables, the scored grades were reported, as well as the percentage of animals affected in summary tables.


BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Males and females were weighed on the first day of exposure and weekly thereafter. Mated females were weighed on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17 and 20 post-coitum and on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.


FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
Weekly, except for males and females which were housed together for mating and for females without evidence of mating. Food consumption of mated females was measured on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17 and 20 postcoitum and on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.


FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No


WATER CONSUMPTION:Subjective appraisal was maintained during the study, but no quantitative investigation was introduced as no treatment related effect was suspected.


OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at the scheduled necropsies (study day 28 for males and lactation day 5 for females)
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: isoflurane
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5 animals/sex/group
- Parameters were examined: Total leukocyte count (WBC), Erythrocyte count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HGB), Hematocrit (HCT), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Platelet count (PLATELET), Prothrombin time (PT), Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), Reticulocyte count, Percent (RETIC), Absolute (RETIC ABSOLUTE), Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), Red cell distribution width (RDW), Hemoglobin Distribution Width (HDW), Differential leukocyte count: (Percent and absolute): Neutrophil (NEU), Lymphocyte (LYMPH), Monocyte (MONO), Eosinophil (EOS), Basophil (BASO), Large unstained cell (LUC), Platelet estimatea, Red cell morphology (RBC MORPHOLOGY).


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at the scheduled necropsies (study day 28 for males and lactation day 5 for females)
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5 animals/sex/group
- Parameters were examined: Albumin, Total protein, Globulin [by calculation], Albumin/globulin ratio (A/G Ratio) [by calculation], Total bilirubin (Total Bili), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), Glucose, Total cholesterol (Cholesterol), Calcium, Chloride, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Triglycerides (Triglyceride), Bile acids.


URINALYSIS: No


NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: FOB assessments were recorded for 5 animals/sex/group. The selected males were tested during Week 4 of treatment and the selected females were tested towards the end of the scheduled lactation period (all before blood sampling). These tests were performed after observation for clinical signs (incl. arena observation, if applicable).

The following tests were performed:
- hearing ability, pupillary reflex and static righting reflex (score 0 = normal/present, score 1 = abnormal/absent).
- fore- and hind-limb grip strength were recorded as the mean of three measurements (Series M4-10, Mark-10 Corporation, J.J. Bos, Gouda, The Netherlands).
- locomotor activity (recording period: 1-hour under normal laboratory light conditions, using a computerized monitoring system, Kinder Scientific LLC, Poway, USA). Total movements and ambulations were reported. Ambulations represent movements characterized by a relocation of the entire body position like walking, whereas total movements represent all movements made by the animals, including ambulations but also smaller or more fine movements like grooming,
weaving or movements of the head.

Pups:
Each litter was examined to determine the following, if practically possible:
- Mortality / Viability The numbers of live and dead pups were determined on Day 1 of lactation and daily thereafter. If possible, defects or cause of death were
evaluated.
- Clinical signs At least once daily, detailed clinical observations were made for all animals.
- Body weights Live pups were weighed on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.
- Sex was determined for all pups on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.






Sacrifice and pathology:
Parental animals (F0)

SACRIFICE: All surviving F0 adults were euthanized by carbon dioxide inhalation. Males were euthanized following completion of the mating period. Females that delivered were euthanized on lactation day 5 or within 24 hours of total litter loss; the numbers of former implantation sites and corpora lutea were recorded. Females that failed to deliver were euthanized on post mating day 25 (females with evidence of mating) or post-cohabitation day 25 (females with no evidence of mating).

GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
Uteri with no macroscopic evidence of implantation were opened and subsequently placed in 10 % ammonium sulfide solution for detection of early implantation loss. A gross necropsy was conducted on all animals including the female that was found dead during gestation; the numbers of corpora lutea and implantation sites were recorded and recognizable fetuses were examined externally for gross abnormalities. Necropsies included examination of the external surface, all orifices, the external surface of the brain, and the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities, including viscera.

ORGAN WEIGHTS: from F0 animals at the scheduled necropsies, the following organs were weighed: Adrenal glands, Ovaries with oviducts, Brain, Spleen, Epididymides, Testes, Heart, Thymus gland, Kidneys, Thyroids with parathyroids, Liver.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes
At the time of necropsy, the following tissues and organs were placed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin: Adrenal glands (2), Lymph node (Axillary, Mesenteric, Mandibular), Aorta, Bone with marrow (sternebrae), Bone marrow smear ( not placed in formalin), Brain (Cerebrum level 1, Cerebrum level 2, Cerebellum with medulla/pons), Ovaries and oviducts (2), Pancreas, Peripheral nerve (sciatic), Pituitary gland, Coagulating glands, Prostate gland, Eyes with optic nerve (2) (in Davidson’s solution), Mandibular salivary glands (2), Gastrointestinal tract (Esophagus, Stomach, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Colon, Rectum), Seminal vesicles (2), Skeletal muscle (rectus femoris), Skin with mammary gland, Spinal cord (cervical), Spleen, Testes with epididymides (2) (fixed in Bouin’s solution), Thymus gland, Thyroids [with parathyroids, if present (2)], Heart, Trachea, Kidneys (2), Urinary bladder, Liver (sections of 2 lobes), Uterus with cervix and vagina (in 10% ammonium sulfide solution), Lungs (including bronchi, fixed by inflation with fixative), All gross lesions.

Microscopic examination was performed on all tissues listed above from all animals in the control and 300 mg/kg/day groups. In addition, the liver, stomach, and all gross lesions from all animals at all dosage levels were examined microscopically. All organ and tissue samples, as defined under Histopathology (following section), were processed, embedded and cut at a thickness of 2-4 micrometers. These slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (Klinipath, Duiven, The Netherlands). The additional slides of the testes (to examine staging of spermatogenesis) were stained with PAS/haematoxylin (Klinipath, Duiven, The Netherlands). In addition,

Pups:
Pups surviving to planned termination were killed by decapitation on Day 5 of lactation. Pups found dead during the weekend were fixed in identified containers containing 70% ethanol (from Klinipath, Duiven, The Netherlands). All pups were sexed and descriptions of all external abnormalities were recorded. The stomach of pups not surviving to the scheduled necropsy date was examined for the presence of milk, if possible. If possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.
Statistics:
The following statistical methods were used to analyze the data:
- If the variables could be assumed to follow a normal distribution, the Dunnett-test (Ref. 2; many-toone t-test) based on a pooled variance estimate was applied for the comparison of the treated groups and the control groups for each sex.
- The Steel-test (Ref. 3; many-to-one rank test) was applied if the data could not be assumed to follow a normal distribution.
- The Fisher Exact-test (Ref. 4) was applied to frequency data.
- The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric ANOVA test (Ref. 5) was applied to motor activity data to determine intergroup differences.

All tests were two-sided and in all cases p < 0.05 was accepted as the lowest level of significance. Group means were calculated for continuous data and medians were calculated for discrete data (scores) in the summary tables. Test statistics were calculated on the basis of exact values for means and pooled variances. Individual values, means and standard deviations may have been rounded off before printing. Therefore, two groups may display the same printed means for a given parameter, yet display different test statistics values.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
See belwo
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
See belwo
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
See below
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
See below
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY:
There were two unscheduled deaths in this study: One control female (no. 46) had to be euthanized on Day 22 post-coitum. Before her death, hunched posture and piloerection were noted. She already had delivered 10 pups (1 dead and 9 alive), and an additional 2 pups (1 dead and 1 alive) were found in her uterus at necropsy. Other necropsy findings included many dark-red foci on the lungs and caecum, and watery-clear fluid in the thoracic cavity. The dark red focus/foci in the caecum correlated to a moderate necrotizing enteritis and was the vehicle alone, there was no relation to treatment with the test substance. One high dose female (no. 79) treated at 300 mg/kg/day was found dead on Day 0 post-coitum (i.e. after 16 days of treatment). When performing vaginal lavage, she was noted with labored respiration and piloerection. Shortly thereafter she was found dead. There were no indications for a bad condition of this female the days before her death. Gross findings at necropsy included irregular surface of the forestomach, many, dark-red foci on the thymus, and uterus containing fluid with its left horn containing reddish fluid. The likely cause of death was a gavage accident as evidenced by the microscopically marked (acute) ulceration in the trachea. Both these deaths were considered incidental and not related to treatment with the test substance.
There were no adverse effects on clinical appearance noted with treatment up to 300 mg/kg/day. Salivation seen after dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day was considered not toxicologically relevant, considering the nature and minor severity of the effect and its time of occurrence (i.e. after dosing). This sign was considered to be a physiological response related to taste and/or irritating properties of the test substance rather than a sign of systemic toxicity. One female at 30 mg/kg/day (no. 55) had swelling of the right axillary region during the last week of the study. At necropsy, a tan hard nodule was found which turned out to be an adenoma of the mammary gland. This rare benign neoplasm was considered to be a spontaneous finding with no relation to treatment. Rales were noted for two females at 100 mg/kg/day (nos. 62 and 65), and two males (nos. 33 and 37) and one female (no. 77) at 300 mg/kg/day over 1-7 days during the treatment period. In addition, female no. 62 had slight lethargy, hunched posture, piloerection and a lean appearance for 1-2 days, together with reduced water consumption (subjective appraisal, taken from study daybook) and slight body weight loss on Day 17 post-coitum. Other incidental observations included piloerection or swelling of the throat region noted for one female each at 300 mg/kg/day during 2 and 5 days, respectively. At the limited incidence observed and because these signs were transient, they were not considered to be adverse.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN:
No toxicologically or statistically significant changes in body weights and body weight gain were noted.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
NA

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
No toxicologically relevant changes in food consumption before or after allowance for body weight were noted. For males at 300 mg/kg/day, food consumption (absolute and relative) was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower during the first week of treatment (Days 1-8 pre-mating). No toxicological significance was attributed to this as changes compared to the control group were only slight and occurred transiently.

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study):
NA

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION:
NA

HAEMATOLOGY:
There were no differences noted in haematological parameters between control and treated rats that were considered to be related to treatment with TMPTA.
For males at 300 mg/kg/day, the percentage of reticulocytes was statistically significantly higher compared to the concurrent control group. This finding was not considered to be toxicologically relevant as all individual values remained within the normal range of biological variation. At the individual level, a relatively high reticulocyte count with a concurrent lower red blood cell count and a high value for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was found for one control female (no. 48). This finding correlated with a relatively high spleen weight (absolute and relative to body weight) and markedly increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen at the microscopic level. Since this was a female in the control group, a relation to treatment with the test substance could be excluded.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY:
No toxicologically relevant changes occurred in clinical biochemistry parameters of treated rats. The following statistically significant changes in clinical biochemistry parameters were noted for treated rats as compared to controls: decreased potassium at 30 mg/kg/day (males), decreased calcium at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day (males), and increased calcium at 300 mg/kg/day (females). No toxicologically relevance was attached to these findings as values remained within the normal range of biological variation, the differences from the control group were not accompanied by relevant changes in other clinical biochemistry parameters and/or corroborative histopathological changes, and/or a dose-related response was absent. At the individual level, relatively high concentrations of urea, bile acids and/or inorganic phosphate were found for two females at 300 mg/kg/day (nos. 72 and 74). In the absence of corroborative histopathological findings, it was not considered to be toxicologically relevant.

URINALYSIS:
NA

NEUROBEHAVIOUR:
Hearing ability, pupillary reflex, static righting reflex and grip strength were not affected by treatment. The slightly lower grip strength of the fore- and hindlegs recorded for females at 300 mg/kg/day was not considered to be toxicologically relevant as changes were relative slight and values remained within the normal range of biological variation. The variation in motor activity did not indicate a relation with treatment. All groups showed a similar habituation profile with high activity in the first interval that decreased over the duration of the test period.

ORGAN WEIGHTS:
No toxicologically relevant changes were noted in organ weights and organ to body weight ratios. Statistically significant changes comprised lower absolute adrenal weight in males at 30 mg/kg/day, higher relative heart weight in males at 300 mg/kg/day, and higher absolute and relative thymus weight in females at 100 mg/kg/day, when compared to control. These changes were considered to be of no toxicological relevance as they remained within the range considered normal for rats of this age and strain and/or occurred in the absence of a treatment-related distribution. The relatively high ovaries weight for one female at 300 mg/kg/day (no. 75) was caused by a wateryclear cyst (10x15 mm) on her left ovary. This cyst was considered to be a chance finding and not treatment-related. It is seen incidentally in female rats of this age and strain.

GROSS PATHOLOGY:
Test item-related macroscopic findings were present in the non-glandular part of the stomach (i.e. forestomach) in the form of irregular surface (correlating microscopic observation: squamous cell hyperplasia forestomach) in 5/10 males treated at 100 mg/kg/day, and 7/10 males and 7/10 females (including the female that died spontaneously) at 300 mg/kg/day. No macroscopic findings were noted in the forestomach of males and females treated at 30 mg/kg/day, and in females treated at 100 mg/kg/day. Incidental findings among control and treated animals were within the background range of findings that are encountered among rats of this age and strain, and did not show a dose-related trend. These necropsy findings were therefore considered to be unrelated to treatment.


HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC:
Test item-related microscopic findings present in the non-glandular part of the stomach (i.e. forestomach) included:
- Inflammation of the forestomach was present in males and females treated at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day up to a moderate degree.
- Hyperplasia squamous cell of the forestomach was present in males and females treated at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day up to a marked degree.
- Ulceration of the forestomach was present in a single female treated at 300 mg/kg/day at a slight degree.
These microscopic changes (inflammation, squamous cell hyperplasia and/or ulceration) correlated to the macroscopic observation of irregular surface in the forestomach. There were no other test substance-related histologic changes. The remainder of the recorded microscopic findings were within the range of background pathology encountered in rats of this age and strain. There was no test substance-related alteration in the prevalence, severity, or histologic
character of those incidental tissue alterations.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NEOPLASTIC (if applicable):
NA

HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA (if applicable):
Available

OTHER FINDINGS:
NA
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Based on these results, a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day for local toxicity and a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg bw/day for systemic toxicity could be derived for parental toxicity (F0).
Critical effects observed:
no

Chemical analyses:

Analysis of dose preparations showed that no test substance was detected in the Group 1 formulations (control group). The concentrations analysed in the formulations of Groups 2, 3 and 4 prepared for use on 04 and 31 March 2015 were in agreement with the target concentrations (i.e. mean accuracies between 90% and 110%). The formulations of Group 2 and Group 4 prepared for use on 04 and 31 March 2015 were homogeneous (i.e. coefficient of variation ≤ 10%). Formulations at the entire range were stable when stored at room temperature protected from light for at least 5 hours (i.e. relative difference ≤ 10%). The long term storage samples were stable at ≤-70°C for at least 34 days. It should be noted that the tested storage period was slightly shorter than the maximum storage period in this study which was 37 days for the formulation samples taken on treatment Day 28. Data from the accuracy measurement of these samples showed no degradation of the test substance in formulation after storage in the freezer, thereby supporting stability over the longer period. Overall, formulation analysis showed that the formulations were prepared accurately and homogenously, and were stable when stored at room temperature protected from light for at least 5 hours.

Conclusions:
The repeated dose toxicity (28-day) of TMPTA was evaluated in a combined 28-day repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test in accordance with OECD 422. TMPTA was administered by daily oral gavage to male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day. A NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day for local toxicity and a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg bw/day for systemic toxicity could be derived for parental toxicity (F0). No higher doses could be tested due to test substance related local toxicity on the non-glandular part of the stomach (i.e. the forestomach) at doses of 100 mg/kg/day and higher.
Executive summary:

The repeated dose toxicity (28-day) of TMPTA was evaluated in a combined 28-day repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test in accordance with OECD 422. TMPTA was administered by daily oral gavage to male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day. Males were exposed for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination (for 29 days). The females were exposed for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during gestation, and at least 4 days of lactation (for 41-55 days).

Treatment with TMPTA at dose levels of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day revealed parental toxicity at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day (both sexes). There were only adverse local morphologic alterations in the non-glandular part of the stomach, the forestomach, which represented a local irritating effect of the test substance rather than a systemic effect. No treatment-related toxicologically significant changes were noted in any of the remaining parental parameters investigated in this study (i.e. clinical appearance, functional observations, body weight, food consumption, clinical laboratory investigations and organ weights).

Based on these results, a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day for local toxicity and a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg bw/day for systemic toxicity could be derived for parental toxicity (F0). No higher doses could be tested due to test substance related local toxicity on the non-glandular part of the stomach (i.e. the forestomach) at doses of 100 mg/kg/day and higher.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
300 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
High quality study performed according to OECD 422.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1978
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient details
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
TMPTA (500 mg/kg bw) was applied to the backs of New Zealand White albino rabbits (5/sex/dose) once daily, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Six animals per group were sacrificed after 15 days and remaining 4 animals after 30 days. Animals were monitored for the clinical signs and mortality, body weight gains, dermal reactions, gross pathology and histopathology.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Marland Breeding Farms, Inc. Hewitt, New Jersey
- Weight at study initiation: Male-2.5 (2.3 - 3.0) kg; Female-2.5 (2.2 - 2.9) kg
- Housing: Individually housed in suspended stainless steel cage
- Diet: Purina rabbit chow, ad libitum
- Water: Ad libitum
- Acclimation period: At least one week

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12 h light/ 12 h dark
Type of coverage:
open
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: Back
- Time intervals for shavings or clippings: Clipping was repeated as necessary throughout the study

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 500 mg/kg bw
- Constant volume or concentration used: Yes

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: Yes
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Not applicable
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Two weeks
Frequency of treatment:
Daily, five days/week for two weeks
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
500 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal per unit body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Five
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
- Rationale for animal assignment: Random
Positive control:
None
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes

DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Pretest, weekly during treatment and terminally


Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes
Other examinations:
None
Statistics:
None
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Dermal irritation:
effects observed, treatment-related
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY:
- Decreased motor activity and nasal discharge during the study
- The ears of some animals came in contact with the test material and subsequently exhibited edema and scab formation

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN: Four animals (2 males and 2 females) exhibited slight weight losses

DERMAL IRRITATION:
- Animals exhibited severe erythema with desquamation, necrotic skin and eschar formation
- Exfoliation (sloughing of the eschar tissue) occurred during the second week of the post-dose period
- Fissuring of the skin and slight to moderate edema and atonia were also noted in most animals during the 2 week treatment period; these signs decreased in incidence and severity during the post-dose period

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
Observation in animals sacrificed after two weeks:
- No evidence of a systemic effect
- Severe necrosis of the epithelium and upper dermis

Observation in animals sacrificed after four weeks:
- No evidence of a systemic effect
- Epithelial and subepithelial dermal necrosis persisted two weeks after termination of treatment



Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
sytemic
Effect level:
> 500 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: mortality; body weight; dermal reactions; gross pathology and histopathology
Critical effects observed:
not specified

None

Conclusions:
A systemic NOAEL for trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was considered to be 500 mg/kg bw. A LOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/day can be set for local effects.
Executive summary:

A repeated dermal toxicity study was performed to assess the dermal irritation caused by trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) in New Zealand White rabbits.

 

Groups of New Zealand White rabbits (5/sex/dose) received topical application of TMPTA (500 mg/kg bw) to the back, once daily, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Six animals per group were sacrificed after 15 days and remaining 4 animals per group after 30 days.

 

Signs of severe dermal irritation observed in rabbits treated with TMPTA. Animals exhibited severe erythema with necrotic skin and eschar formation, edema, atonia, fissuring of the skin, desquamation and exfoliation of eschar tissue. Signs of severe irritation persisted in most animals throughout the post-treatment period. Motor activity decreased and nasal discharge occurred in several animals in the treated group, few animals exhibited slight body weight losses.

 

Microscopic examination of selected tissues revealed no evidence of systemic toxicity resulting from administration of TMPTA. Evaluation of treated skin revealed severe necrosis of the epithelium and upper dermis (after 15 days) and epithelial and subepithelial dermal necrosis (after 30 days).

 

In conclusion, as no systemic substance related effects were observed the systemic NOAEL of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was considered to be > 500 mg/kg bw.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
500 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rabbit
Quality of whole database:
Only supportive evidence

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1978
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient details
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
TMPTA (500 mg/kg bw) was applied to the backs of New Zealand White albino rabbits (5/sex/dose) once daily, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Six animals per group were sacrificed after 15 days and remaining 4 animals after 30 days. Animals were monitored for the clinical signs and mortality, body weight gains, dermal reactions, gross pathology and histopathology.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Marland Breeding Farms, Inc. Hewitt, New Jersey
- Weight at study initiation: Male-2.5 (2.3 - 3.0) kg; Female-2.5 (2.2 - 2.9) kg
- Housing: Individually housed in suspended stainless steel cage
- Diet: Purina rabbit chow, ad libitum
- Water: Ad libitum
- Acclimation period: At least one week

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12 h light/ 12 h dark
Type of coverage:
open
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: Back
- Time intervals for shavings or clippings: Clipping was repeated as necessary throughout the study

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 500 mg/kg bw
- Constant volume or concentration used: Yes

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: Yes
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Not applicable
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Two weeks
Frequency of treatment:
Daily, five days/week for two weeks
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
500 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal per unit body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Five
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
- Rationale for animal assignment: Random
Positive control:
None
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes

DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Pretest, weekly during treatment and terminally


Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes
Other examinations:
None
Statistics:
None
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Dermal irritation:
effects observed, treatment-related
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY:
- Decreased motor activity and nasal discharge during the study
- The ears of some animals came in contact with the test material and subsequently exhibited edema and scab formation

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN: Four animals (2 males and 2 females) exhibited slight weight losses

DERMAL IRRITATION:
- Animals exhibited severe erythema with desquamation, necrotic skin and eschar formation
- Exfoliation (sloughing of the eschar tissue) occurred during the second week of the post-dose period
- Fissuring of the skin and slight to moderate edema and atonia were also noted in most animals during the 2 week treatment period; these signs decreased in incidence and severity during the post-dose period

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
Observation in animals sacrificed after two weeks:
- No evidence of a systemic effect
- Severe necrosis of the epithelium and upper dermis

Observation in animals sacrificed after four weeks:
- No evidence of a systemic effect
- Epithelial and subepithelial dermal necrosis persisted two weeks after termination of treatment



Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
sytemic
Effect level:
> 500 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: mortality; body weight; dermal reactions; gross pathology and histopathology
Critical effects observed:
not specified

None

Conclusions:
A systemic NOAEL for trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was considered to be 500 mg/kg bw. A LOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/day can be set for local effects.
Executive summary:

A repeated dermal toxicity study was performed to assess the dermal irritation caused by trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) in New Zealand White rabbits.

 

Groups of New Zealand White rabbits (5/sex/dose) received topical application of TMPTA (500 mg/kg bw) to the back, once daily, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Six animals per group were sacrificed after 15 days and remaining 4 animals per group after 30 days.

 

Signs of severe dermal irritation observed in rabbits treated with TMPTA. Animals exhibited severe erythema with necrotic skin and eschar formation, edema, atonia, fissuring of the skin, desquamation and exfoliation of eschar tissue. Signs of severe irritation persisted in most animals throughout the post-treatment period. Motor activity decreased and nasal discharge occurred in several animals in the treated group, few animals exhibited slight body weight losses.

 

Microscopic examination of selected tissues revealed no evidence of systemic toxicity resulting from administration of TMPTA. Evaluation of treated skin revealed severe necrosis of the epithelium and upper dermis (after 15 days) and epithelial and subepithelial dermal necrosis (after 30 days).

 

In conclusion, as no systemic substance related effects were observed the systemic NOAEL of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was considered to be > 500 mg/kg bw.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Species:
rabbit
Quality of whole database:
Only supportive evidence

Additional information

An OECD TG 408 90D oral study in rats is planned and a testing proposal has been made in order to fulfill Annex IX data requirements.

Justification for classification or non-classification

No systemic toxicity was observed for TMPTA in an OECD 422 study at the highest dose level of 300 mg/kg/d in rats for 28 days repeated oral administration. No classification for target organ toxicity upon repeated exposure is required based on the available data according to the Regulation EC 1272/2008.

Classification for specific target organ toxicity or danger at repeated or prolonged exposure:

CLP: no additional classification