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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well documented study but not in accordance to GLP or guideline. Solution analysis not performed.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A 48 h acute toxicity study was performed with cyanuric acid. Procedures were based on “Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians” (US EPA 1975).
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Source: Cultured at E G and G Bionomics
- Age at study initiation: ≤ 24 hours old


Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
60 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
22 ± 1 ºC
pH:
7.0– 7.3
Dissolved oxygen:
6.8 mg/L (77 % saturation) to 8.3 mg/L (94 % saturation)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
1,000, 600, 360, 220, 130 and 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 ml beakers containing 150 ml of test solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5 animals / vessel
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3 vessels / concentration
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3 vessels / concentration
- Biomass loading rate: 30 mL / animal


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Deionized, reconstituted well water


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: The appropriate amount of the test compound was dissolved in water and neutralized to pH 7 with 1N NaOH



EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Mortality was determined at 24 and 48 hours


Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Mortality of control: No mortalities
Validity criteria fulfilled:
no
Remarks:
Solution concentrations were not measured
Conclusions:
48 h LC50 > 1000 mg/L. Cyanuric acid is not harmful to Daphnia magna
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: other: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms" EPA/600/4-90/027
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Solutions prepared by addition of cyanuric acid to test concentrations containing 1200 ml of synthetic saltwater. The pH of the 8000 mg/l high concentration was raised to 7.0 by addition of 1.0 N NaOH, then stirred for 1/2 hour on a magnetic stir plate. The solution was then placed in a sonic water bath until the cyanuric acid had dissolved into the synthetic seawater.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Mysid shrimp
- Source: Obtained from a commercial supplier
- Age at study initiation: 3 days


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Held and acclimated for 1 day in the test dilution water
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Yes
- Type and amount of food: Artemia



Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
522 - 1560 as CaO3 mg / L
Test temperature:
24.4 - 25.3 (mean: 24.8)
pH:
6.86 – 8.09
Dissolved oxygen:
7.6 - 8.3 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg/l (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: During test the vessels were kept covered except when experimental observations were made
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 ml glass beakers filled with 200 ml of dilution water
- Aeration: Aerated and aged for more than 24 h prior to using in the test
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Synthetic sewater prepared by addition of reagent grade marine salt to Millipore water.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Day 0 -temperature, specific conductivity/salinity, total hardness and alkalinity, pH and dissolved oxygen, daily - temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity/salinity, and pH.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Test solution adjusted toa pH of 7.00, placed on a stir plate, then placed in a sonic waterbath
- Photoperiod: 16 h light, 8 h dark, maintained using cool–white fluorescent lamps.


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Daily - test organisms and abnormal behaviour and signs of stress, and dead test organisms


Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium chloride
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4 438 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL (3828-5145 mg/L)
Results with reference substance (positive control):
LC50: from 0.62 to 1.41 g/L over 8 tests
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 was calculated via the Spearman-Karber method; LOEC and NOEC were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.
Conclusions:
96 h LC50 = 4438 mg/L. Cyanuric acid is not harmful to mysid shrimp
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study not performed to GLP or guideline. No solution analysis.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Procedure based on Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, 1975.
GLP compliance:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Source: Cultured at the ABC facilities
- Age at study initiation: First instar was less than 18 h old
- Feeding during test: No - the adult daphnia were fed a suspension of trout chow and alfalfa (PR-11) daily until 24 hours prior to testing


Test type:
static
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
220 mg/l
Test temperature:
19°C
pH:
7.7
Dissolved oxygen:
8.6 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 560, 1000, 1800, 3200 and 5600 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 500 ml glass beakers containing 250 ml of ABC well water
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 Daphnia/vessel
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2 vessels/concentration
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2 vessels
- Biomass loading rate: 25 ml/Daphnia


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Well water from Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories
- Alkalinity: 210 mg/l
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Measured at the termination of the test

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h daylight, 8 h darkness



EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Mortality measured at 24 and 48 h


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: A preliminary test using a duplicate of 1500 mg/l concentration exhibited no toxicity
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Mortality of control: No mortalities
A white precipitation was observed in all concentrations greater than 1000 mg/L. The 48 h LC50 value quoted in the report was 6000 mg/L. However this value is considered above the reported solubility of cyanuric acid. A precise LC50 value can therefore not be given. The 48 h LC50 is therefore considered to be >1000 mg/L. No mortalities were observed at this concentration.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were calculated using the technique of Litchfield J.T. and Wilcoxon F (1949)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
no
Remarks:
Test concentrations not analyzed
Conclusions:
48 h LC50 = 6000 mg/L. Cyanuric acid is not harmful to Daphnia magna

Description of key information

Two 48h static toxicity studies were performed on daphnia magna.  A study has also been performed with the marine aquatic invertebrate mysid shrimp.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
1 000 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
4 438 mg/L

Additional information

In a 48 h static acute toxicity test (LeBlanc 1978) Daphnia magna were exposed to nominal concentrations of 1,000, 600, 360, 220, 130 and 100 mg/L cyanuric acid. No mortalities occurred at the highest concentration test (48 h LC50 = > 1000 mg/L). In another 48 h static acute toxicity study (McAllister 1978) Daphnia magna were exposed to nominal test concentrations of 0, 560, 1000, 1800, 3200 and 5600 mg/L. The 48 h LC50 was determined to be 6000 mg/L. A white precipitation was observed in all concentrations greater than 1000 mg/L. The 48 h LC50 value quoted in the report was 6000 mg/L. However this value is considered above the reported solubility of cyanuric acid. A precise LC50 value can therefore not be given. The 48 h LC50 is therefore considered to be >1000 mg/L. No mortalities were observed at this concentration. In an acute toxicity study with marine aquatic invertebrates (Anderson 2002) mysid shrimp were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg/L cyanuric acid for 96 h. The 96 h LC50 was calculated to be 4438 mg/L.