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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
19/05/1992 - 20/06/1992
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
This study was conducted based on OECD guideline 301 F, but is not considered to have maintained GLP standards. Thus this study should be considered Klimisch 2.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
This study was carried out in 1992 pre-dating REACH requirements, although report is dated 2009.
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
Fresh activated sludge from a biological waste water treatment plant (Aire, Geneva). This plants treats predominantly domestic sewage. Sludge was collected on the morning of testing and was washed three times in the mineral medium. Washing was conducted by centrifuging at 1000g for 10 minutes, discarding the supernatant and resuspending in mineral medium. Inoculum was kept aerobic and used on the same day.
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
This study was based on OECD guideline 301 F. For this a measured volume of inoculated mineral medium containing a known concentration of test substance as the sole source of organic carbon was stirred in a flask at a constant temperature for 28 days. The consumption of oxygen was determined by measuring the quantity of oxygen (produced electrolytically) required to maintain a constant gas volume in the respirometer flask. The amount of oxygen taken up by the microbial population during biodegradation of the test chemical is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD).
Test performance:
Oxygen consumption in each flask was recorded daily. At the end of the test period (28 days) the pH in each flask was measured.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
90
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
Results indicate that the test substance was not toxic to the test inoculum. Amyl cinnamic aldehyde was found to undergo 90% biodegradation after 28 days under test conditions. The 10-day window was also fulfilled as there was 16% biodegradation on day 4 and 82% on day 14. No major changes in pH were observed in flasks with only test substance.
Results with reference substance:
The reference substance was found to be 60% degradedd after 7 days and 61% degradded after 28 days. This verifies the viability of the inoculum and the test can be considered valid.

Table 1: O2 uptake (mg/l, adjusted to nominal concentrations)

  Day   4 7  14  21  28 

 O2 uptake sludge (Fl)

  16.0   22.0  31.0 34.0  42.0 
 O2 uptake sludge (F2)    15.0 17.0  17.0  17.0  17.0 
 O2 uptake sludge (mean)   15.5  19.5  24  25.5  29.5 
 O2 uptake test substance (F1)    70.0 224.6  264.3  283.7  294.5 
 O2 uptake test substance (F2)    51.4 207.8  250.4  265.3  279 
Corrected O2 uptake test substance (F1)     54.5 205.1  240.3  258.2  265.0 
Corrected O2 uptake test substance (F2)     35.9 188.3  226.4  239.8  249.5 

F1= Flask 1

F2= Flask 2

Table 2: Percentage biodegradation of test substance by day

          % biodegradation of test substance   Day  4  7  14  21  28 
Flask 1    19  72  84 91 93 
 Flask 2    13  66  79 84  88 
 Mean    16 69  82  87  90 
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Amyl cinnamic aldehyde was found to undergo 90% biodegradation after 28 days under the test conditions stated above. The 10-day window was fulfilled as there was 66% degradation between day 4 and day 14. Thus, this test finds that amyl cinnamic aldehyde is readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

A 28-day ready biodegradability test was carried out for amyl cinnamic aldehyde in accordance with OECD guideline 301 F. The study was coducted using a SAPROMAT volumetric respirometer with inoculum from a domestic sewage plant, mineral medium and the test substance as the sole source of organic carbon. Aniline was used as a reference substance. Test temperature was 25oC with a pH of 7.4±0.2. Oxygen consumption was measured and recorded each day. After 28 days amyl cinnamic aldehyde underwent 90% biodegradation, along with reaching 66% biodegradation within the 10-day window. Therefore amyl cinnamic aldehyde can be considered readily biodegradable.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: screening test, other
Remarks:
Published research
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
2000
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Remarks:
As this is a public domain study with limited information available on the conditions of the experiment it is considered to be Klimisch 4, non-assignable. However, it should be noted that all methods seem to be scientifically valid and most likely present an accurate overview of removal of the substance in a standard STP.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No specific guideline was used in testing the removal of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde from waste water treatment facilities. However, the methods used are judged to be scientifically robust.
GLP compliance:
no
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
mixture of sewage, soil and natural water
Details on inoculum:
The test system was a trickling filter waste water treatment plant. The treatment plant operated at 93.4% Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) removal (5-day) and 92.3% total suspended solids removal and receives primarily >90% domestic wastewater.
Duration of test (contact time):
3 d
Initial conc.:
7 860 other: ng/L
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
test mat. analysis
Details on study design:
See methods below
Parameter:
% degradation (test mat. analysis)
Value:
52.9
Remarks on result:
other: primary removal only
Parameter:
% degradation (test mat. analysis)
Value:
99.4
Remarks on result:
other: Primary and secondary removal
Details on results:
The average fragrance concentration in the influent was 7860 ng L(-1), primary effluent was 3700 ng L(-1) and final effluent was 48 ng L(-1). The % primary removal was 52.9%; the % primary plus secondary removal was 99.4%.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Interpretation of results:
other: Hexyl cinnamic aldehyde will be degraded quickly in the STP
Executive summary:

The amount of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde in municipal wastewater and treated wastewater was analysed in order to assess the degradation of the substance in waste water treatment facilities.

A trickling filter wastewater treatment plant operating at 93.4% Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) removal (5 -day) and 92.3% suspended solids removal was used for the test. Samples were taken from the influent, effluent from primary treatment, and effluent from secondary treatment. Influent and effluent extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographic high-resolution mass spectrometry. The fragrance materials were identified by low resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

The average fragrance concentration in the influent was 7860 ng L(-1), primary effluent was 3700 ng L(-1) and final effluent was 48 ng L(-1). The % primary removal was 52.9%; the % primary plus secondary removal was 99.4%. As such, removal of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde from the STP is expected to be rapid with the majority of the substance being removed.

Description of key information

Amyl cinnamic aldehyde was found to have degraded by 90 % after 28 days and fulfilled the 10-day window with 66% biodegradation in a 10 day period.

A study of removal of the read-across substance hexyl cinnamic aldehyde in the STP found that in a facility with primary and secondary removal systems there was a removal efficiency of 99.4%

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

A 28-day ready biodegradability test was carried out for amyl cinnamic aldehyde in accordance with OECD guideline 301 F. The study was conducted using a SAPROMAT volumetric respirometer with inoculum from a domestic sewage plant, mineral medium and the test substance as the sole source of organic carbon. Aniline was used as a reference substance. Test temperature was 25oC with a pH of 7.4±0.2. Oxygen consumption was measured and recorded each day. After 28 days amyl cinnamic aldehyde underwent 90% biodegradation, along with reaching 66% biodegradation within the 10-day window. Therefore amyl cinnamic aldehyde can be considered readily biodegradable.

The removal of the read-across substance hexyl cinnamic aldehyde in municipal wastewater treatment facilities was analysed in order to assess the removal efficiencies which can be expected from the standard STP.

Samples were taken from the influent, effluent from primary treatment, and effluent from secondary treatment. Influent and effluent extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographic high-resolution mass spectrometry. The fragrance materials were identified by low resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

The average fragrance concentration in the influent was 7860 ng L(-1), primary effluent was 3700 ng L(-1) and final effluent was 48 ng L(-1). The % primary removal was 52.9%; the % primary plus secondary removal was 99.4%.

As such, removal of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde from the STP is expected to be rapid with the majority of the substance being removed.