Registration Dossier

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.2 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
25
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
45 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
55.5 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The substance fulfils the REACH information requirements Annex VII to Annex XI in accordance with ECHA guidance R7.5-7.7 (2016) for assessing long-term systemic toxicity. Since no repeated dose inhalation study is available, route-to-route extrapolation from the oral exposure route is performed. The starting point is the NOAEL from the 90 day oral study in rats; 45 mg/kg bw/day.

This oral rat NOAEL is converted to an inhalation NOAEC for rats by using a default respiratory volume for the rat corresponding to 8 hours (0.38 m3/kg bw/day). A factor for route-to-route extrapolation is included based on the default oral absorption value (50%) and the default inhalation absorption values (100%) (R.7.12. June 2017). The resulting rat inhalation NOAEC is converted into inhalation worker NOAEC by correction for respiratory rate based on activity (6.7 m3for normal light activity versus 10 m3for worker activity) and by correction for 5 day exposure (7 days exposure per week in the study versus 5 days per week for workers): 45 * (1/0.38) * (50/100)* (6.7/10) * (7/5) = 55.5 mg/m3.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose,…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. For a sub-chronic toxicity study, an assessment factor of 2 is to be applied, as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where the dose unit (original or transformed) in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m³ air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. In this case, route-to-route extrapolation is performed form an oral feeding study. The derived NOAEL is modified according to allometric principles to a NOAEC (mg/m³), therefore additional assessment factor for allometric scaling is not needed.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, interspecies differences result from variation in the sensitivity of species due to differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Some of the toxicokinetic differences can be explained by differences in body size (and related differences in basal metabolic rate). As no substance-specific data are available, the standard procedure for threshold effects is followed. As a default, an additional factor of 2.5 for interspecies differences (other than allometric scaling), i.e. toxicokinetic differences not related to metabolic rate (small part) and toxicodynamic differences (larger part) is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, intraspecies differences in human result from a multitude of biological factors such as genetic polymorphism affecting e.g. toxicokinetics/metabolism, age, gender, health status and nutritional status. For workers, as standard procedure for threshold effects a default assessment factor of 5 is to be used, based on the fact that this sub population does not cover the very young, the very old, and the very ill.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, there are no remaining uncertainties. Since there are no further uncertainties, the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
3.15 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
45 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
315 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The substance fulfils the REACH information requirements Annex VII to Annex XI in accordance with ECHA guidance R7.5-7.7 (2016) for assessing long-term systemic toxicity. Since no repeated dose dermal study is available, route-to-route extrapolation from the oral exposure route is performed. The starting point is the NOAEL from the 90-day oral study in rats; 45 mg/kg bw/day. For highly lipophilic substances (log Kow > 4) with a molecular weight > 500 g/mol, according to Section R.7.12.2.1 of REACH guidance document R7.C, a 10% default dermal absorption value is recommended for the purpose of risk assessment. Since the Log Know is substantially higher than 4 and the mean molecular weight is just below 500 g/mol, the 10% dermal absorption is considered to be appropriate for this substance. The default oral absorption value of 50% was adopted. A correction for 5 day exposure is performed (7 days exposure per week in the study versus 5 days per week for workers): 45 * 50/10 * (7/5) = 315 mg/kg bw/day.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose,…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. For a sub-chronic toxicity study, an assessment factor of 2 is to be applied, as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, differences in metabolic rate (allometric scaling) should be accounted for by extrapolation of doses according to an overall assumption that equitoxic doses (when expressed in mg/kg bw/day) scale with body weight to the power of 0.75. This results in different default allometric scaling factors for the different animal species when compared with humans. For rats, the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 4.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, interspecies differences result from variation in the sensitivity of species due to differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Some of the toxicokinetic differences can be explained by differences in body size (and related differences in basal metabolic rate). As no substance-specific data are available, the standard procedure for threshold effects is followed. As a default, an additional factor of 2.5 for interspecies differences (other than allometric scaling), i.e. toxicokinetic differences not related to metabolic rate (small part) and toxicodynamic differences (larger part) is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health, intraspecies differences in human result from a multitude of biological factors such as genetic polymorphism affecting e.g. toxicokinetics/metabolism, age, gender, health status and nutritional status. For workers, as standard procedure for threshold effects a default assessment factor of 5 is to be used, based on the fact that this sub population does not cover the very young, the very old, and the very ill.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, there are no remaining uncertainties. Since there are no further uncertainties, the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
391 µg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
50
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
45 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
19.6 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The substance fulfils the REACH information requirements Annex VII to Annex XI in accordance with ECHA guidance R7.5-7.7 (2016) for assessing long-term systemic toxicity. Since no repeated dose inhalation study is available, route-to-route extrapolation from the oral exposure route is performed. The starting point is the NOAEL from the 90-day oral study in rats; 45 mg/kg bw/day. This oral rat NOAEL is converted to an inhalation NOAEC for rats by using a default respiratory volume for the rat corresponding to 24 hours (1.15 m3/kg bw/day). A factor for route-to-route extrapolation is included based on the default oral absorption value (50%) and the default inhalation absorption values (100%) (R.7.12. June 2017): 45 * (1/1.15) * (50/100) = 19.6 mg/m3.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. For a sub-chronic toxicity study, an assessment factor of 2 is to be applied, as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, as long as route-to-route extrapolation is not needed, allometric scaling should not be applied in cases where the dose unit (original or transformed) in experimental animal studies are expressed as concentrations (e.g. in mg/m³ air, ppm in diet, or mg/L in the drinking water) as these are assumed to be already scaled according to the allometric principle, since ventilation rate and food intake directly depend on the basal metabolic rate. In this case, route-to-route extrapolation is performed form an oral feeding study. The derived NOAEL is modified according to allometric principles to a NOAEC (mg/m³), therefore additional assessment factor for allometric scaling is not needed.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, interspecies differences result from variation in the sensitivity of species due to differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Some of the toxicokinetic differences can be explained by differences in body size (and related differences in basal metabolic rate). As no substance-specific data are available, the standard procedure for threshold effects is followed. As a default, an additional factor of 2.5 for interspecies differences (other than allometric scaling), i.e. toxicokinetic differences not related to metabolic rate (small part) and toxicodynamic differences (larger part) is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, intraspecies differences in human result from a multitude of biological factors such as genetic polymorphism affecting e.g. toxicokinetics/metabolism, age, gender, health status and nutritional status. For the general population, as standard procedure for threshold effects a default assessment factor of 10 is to be used, based on the fact that the all sub-populations are covered in this population: the very young, the very old, and the very ill.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, there are no remaining uncertainties. Since there are no further uncertainties, the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.13 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
45 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
225 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The substance fulfils the REACH information requirements Annex VII to Annex XI in accordance with ECHA guidance R7.5-7.7 (2016) for assessing long-term systemic toxicity. Since no repeated dose dermal study is available, route-to-route extrapolation from the oral exposure route is performed. The starting point is the NOAEL from the 90-day oral study in rats; 45 mg/kg bw/day. For highly lipophilic substances (log Kow > 4) with a molecular weight > 500 g/mol, according to Section R.7.12.2.1 of REACH guidance document R7.C, a 10% default dermal absorption value is recommended for the purpose of risk assessment. Since the Log Know is substantially higher than 4 and the mean molecular weight is just below 500 g/mol, the 10% dermal absorption is considered to be appropriate for this substance. The default oral absorption value of 50% was adopted: 45 * 50/10 = 225 mg/kg bw/day.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. For a sub-chronic toxicity study, an assessment factor of 2 is to be applied, as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, differences in metabolic rate (allometric scaling) should be accounted for by extrapolation of doses according to an overall assumption that equitoxic doses (when expressed in mg/kg bw/day) scale with body weight to the power of 0.75. This results in different default allometric scaling factors for the different animal species when compared with humans. For rats, the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 4.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, interspecies differences result from variation in the sensitivity of species due to differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Some of the toxicokinetic differences can be explained by differences in body size (and related differences in basal metabolic rate). As no substance-specific data are available, the standard procedure for threshold effects is followed. As a default, an additional factor of 2.5 for interspecies differences (other than allometric scaling), i.e. toxicokinetic differences not related to metabolic rate (small part) and toxicodynamic differences (larger part) is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, intraspecies differences in human result from a multitude of biological factors such as genetic polymorphism affecting e.g. toxicokinetics/metabolism, age, gender, health status and nutritional status. For the general population, as standard procedure for threshold effects a default assessment factor of 10 is to be used, based on the fact that the all sub-populations are covered in this population: the very young, the very old, and the very ill.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, there are no remaining uncertainties. Since there are no further uncertainties, the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
225 µg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
45 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The substance fulfils the REACH information requirements in accordance with ECHA guidance R7.5-7.7 (2016) for assessing long-term systemic toxicity. The starting point is the NOAEL from the 90-day oral study in rats; 45 mg/kg bw/day.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, for the dose-response relationship, consideration should be given to the uncertainties in the dose descriptor (NOAEL, benchmark dose…) as the surrogate for the true no-adverse-effect-level (NAEL). In this case the starting point for the DNEL calculation is a NOAEL, derived from a study which is of good quality and without uncertainties. Therefore the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 1.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, a factor allowing for differences in the experimental exposure duration and the duration of exposure for the worker and scenario under consideration needs to be considered taking into account that a) in general the experimental NOAEL will decrease with increasing exposure times and b) other and more serious adverse effects may appear with increasing exposure times. Consequently, to end up with the most conservative DNEL for repeated dose toxicity, chronic exposure is the ‘worst case’. For a sub-chronic toxicity study, an assessment factor of 2 is to be applied, as a standard procedure.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, differences in metabolic rate (allometric scaling) should be accounted for by extrapolation of doses according to an overall assumption that equitoxic doses (when expressed in mg/kg bw/day) scale with body weight to the power of 0.75. This results in different default allometric scaling factors for the different animal species when compared with humans. For rats, the default assessment factor, as a standard procedure, is 4.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, interspecies differences result from variation in the sensitivity of species due to differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Some of the toxicokinetic differences can be explained by differences in body size (and related differences in basal metabolic rate). As no substance-specific data are available, the standard procedure for threshold effects is followed. As a default, an additional factor of 2.5 for interspecies differences (other than allometric scaling), i.e. toxicokinetic differences not related to metabolic rate (small part) and toxicodynamic differences (larger part) is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, intraspecies differences in human result from a multitude of biological factors such as genetic polymorphism affecting e.g. toxicokinetics/metabolism, age, gender, health status and nutritional status. For the general population, as standard procedure for threshold effects a default assessment factor of 10 is to be used, based on the fact that the all sub-populations are covered in this population: the very young, the very old, and the very ill.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, the evaluation of the total toxicological database should include an assessment whether the available information as a whole meets the tonnage driven data requirements necessary to fulfil the REACH requirements, or whether there are data gaps (completeness of the database). Furthermore, the hazard data should be assessed for the reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints and taking into account the quality of the testing method, size and power of the study design, biological plausibility, dose-response relationships and statistical association (adequacy of the database). When taking into account the standard information requirements and the completeness and consistency of the database the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
In accordance with ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment – Chapter 8: Characterisation of dose-response for human health, there are no remaining uncertainties. Since there are no further uncertainties, the default assessment factor of 1, to be applied for good/standard quality of the database, is recommended.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - General Population