Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Biodegradation in water:

Determination of percentage degradation of chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide by using parameter BOD. The test were performed with activated sludge from the primary aeration tank at a pilot scale activated sludge sewage treatment plant receiving municipal wastewater (Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lyngby, Denmark). Preconditioning of the sludge began within 1 h of collection. Preconditioning (aeration) took 20 to 24 h at room temperature. Actual test was performed in the Screening tests were performed according to the guidelines in ISO 9408. The tests were performed in Oxytopt respirometers for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand. Sodium acetate was used as a readily biodegradable reference compound. All compounds were tested in duplicates at concentrations corresponding to theoretical oxygen Demands of 40 mg/L. After the exposure of chemical with the activated sludge, no degradation was observed in the 28 days by using the parameter BOD.

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No16803 -97 -7). If released in to the environment,12.7% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in water is estimated to be 37.5days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.321 %), indicates that 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No.16803 -97 -7) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 87 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment:

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide is expected to not bioaccumulate in the food chain.

 

Adsorption / desorption:

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 14.25 L/kg (log Koc= 1.15) by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water:

Various experimental data for the target compound 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) and supporting studies for its closest read across substance with structurally and functionally similar with the target chemical were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

In the first key experimental studies for the target chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzene-sulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) (from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2000) degradation was measured. Determination of percentage degradation of chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide by using parameter BOD. The test were performed with activated sludge from the primary aeration tank at a pilot scale activated sludge sewage treatment plant receiving municipal wastewater (Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lyngby, Denmark). Preconditioning of the sludge began within 1 h of collection. Preconditioning (aeration) took 20 to 24 h at room temperature. Actual test was performed in the Screening tests were performed according to the guidelines in ISO 9408. The tests were performed in Oxytopt respirometers for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand. Sodium acetate was used as a readily biodegradable reference compound. All compounds were tested in duplicates at concentrations corresponding to theoretical oxygen Demands of 40 mg/L. After the exposure of chemical with the activated sludge, no degradation was observed in the 28 days by using the parameter BOD.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS no. 16803 -97 -7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

Similarly in the second experimental studies for the target chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzene-sulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) (from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2000) degradation was measured. Determination of percentage degradation of chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide by using parameter % degradation. The test were performed with activated sludge from the primary aeration tank at a pilot scale activated sludge sewage treatment plant receiving municipal wastewater (Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lyngby, Denmark). Preconditioning of the sludge began within 1 h of collection. Preconditioning (aeration) took 20 to 24 h at room temperature. As the bacteria was sensitive to the chemical in the first exposure, thus various exposure was provide to the bacteria so that bacteria becomes adapted to the chemical and become resistance for the chemical. In the second series of experiment adapted activated sludge expose to the chemical, chemical degradation was observed. Bacteria during the lag period has acquired general properties needed for degradation of several sulfonamides. After the exposure of chemical with the adapted activated sludge, it degrade the chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide 50% in 0.3 days. Thus the % degradation was 0.3 days which indicates that the chemical was readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, HSDB, 2017 and EnviChem, 2014) for the read across chemical 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (CAS no. 101-77-9), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (CAS no. 101-77-9). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) under aerobic conditions. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of read across substance 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane was determined to be 0 and 5% by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1,4-diaminobenzene (CAS no. 106-50-3) (J-CHECK, 2017). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 1,4 -diamino benzene was determined to be 5% by BOD parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1,4-diaminobenzene is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

As in the third study adapted activated sludge was used in the study thus bacteria become resistant and degrade the chemical, but without adaptation bacteria does not degrade chemical. Thus On the basis of above results for target chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) (from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2000 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance authoritative from database J-CHECK, HSDB, 2017 and EnviChem, 2014, it can be concluded that the test substance 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No16803 -97 -7). If released in to the environment,12.7% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in water is estimated to be 37.5days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.321 %), indicates that 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No.16803 -97 -7) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 87 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment:

Various predicted data for the target compound 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7) and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across substance were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

In a prediction from BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide is expected to not bioaccumulate in the food chain.

 

Similarly using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) module Bio-concentration Factor over the entire pH scale of the test substance estimated to be 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzene sulphonamide. This value indicates that the test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide determine to be non-accumulative in aquatic organisms.

 

 In another predicted report from from CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical)  the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 1.96 dimensionless. The predicted BCF result based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide is non-bioaccumulative in nature.

 

Similarly in the another predicted data bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of test chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS no. 16803 -97 -7) was estimated using Chemspider database. The bioconcentration factor of test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 1.16 and 1.27 at  pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively, which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

 

Similarly SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017) was used for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 1, 1.45, 1.77, 1.81, 1.80, 1.69, 1.05 at pH range 1- 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, respectively, (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bio concentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-check, HSDB and Envichem 2017) for the read across chemical 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (CAS no 101-77-9) Bioaccumulation experiment was conducted. Bioaccumulation study was conducted on test organism Cyprinus carpio for 6 weeks for evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (CAS no. 101-77-9).The study was performed according to other guideline "Bioaccumulation test of a chemical substance in fish or shellfish" provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances", respectively. Cyprinus carpio was used as a test organism for the study. Test chemical nominal conc. used for the study were 0.2mg/land 0.02 mg/l, respectively. Test chemical solution was prepared in HCO-50.Analytical method involve the recovery ratio: Test water : 1st concentration area : 97.3 %, 2nd concentration area : 94.5 %, Fish : 76.1 %, - Limit of detection : Test water: 1st concentration area : 7.2 ppb, 2nd concentration area : 0.74 ppb, Fish : 0.06 ppm. Range finding study involve the TLm (48 hr) 32 mg/l (w/v) on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Lipid content of the test organism Cyprinus carpio was determined to be 4.5%. The bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of substance 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane on Cyprinus carpio was determined to be in the range of 3-14 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.2 mg/l and 3.1-15 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.02 mg/l, respectively, which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

 

In another supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-check, 2017) for the read across chemical 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl Ether was studied. The bioaccumulation study in fish was conducted for estimating the BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of test chemical 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl Ether (CAS no. 101-80-4). The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) value was calculated using a log Kow of 1.36 and a regression-derived equation. The estimated BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl Ether was determined to be 4 dimensionless, which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl Ether is considered to be non-accumulative in aquatic organisms.

 

On the basis of available information, the test 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7) can be considered to be nonbioaccumulative in nature.

Adsorption / desorption

Predicted data for the target key compound 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7) and supporting, study were reviewed for the adsorption end point which are summarized as below:

 

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide was estimated to be 14.25 L/kg (log Koc= 1.15) by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

 

Similarly using module (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module). The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program as Koc 1 (at pH ranges from 0-4and 12-14). Koc 20.2, 26.0, 26.8, 26.7, 25.5, 17.4, 4.34,  (log Koc ranges from 0.6 ± 1.0 to 1.4 ± 1.0. This Koc value indicates that the test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide has a negligible sorption to soil and therefore have rapid migration potential to groundwater.

 

On the basis of above overall results for target chemical 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803 -97 -7) (from EPI suite, 2017, ACD lab) it can be concluded that the Koc value of test substance 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide has a negligible sorption to soil and therefore have rapid migration potential to groundwater.