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Description of key information

Biodegradation in water:

Determination of percentage degradation of chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide by using parameter BOD. The test were performed with activated sludge from the primary aeration tank at a pilot scale activated sludge sewage treatment plant receiving municipal wastewater (Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lyngby, Denmark). Preconditioning of the sludge began within 1 h of collection. Preconditioning (aeration) took 20 to 24 h at room temperature. Actual test was performed in the Screening tests were performed according to the guidelines in ISO 9408. The tests were performed in Oxytopt respirometers for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand. Sodium acetate was used as a readily biodegradable reference compound. All compounds were tested in duplicates at concentrations corresponding to theoretical oxygen Demands of 40 mg/L. After the exposure of chemical with the activated sludge, no degradation was observed in the 28 days by using the parameter BOD.

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No16803 -97 -7). If released in to the environment,12.7% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in water is estimated to be 37.5days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.321 %), indicates that 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No.16803 -97 -7) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 87 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water:

Various experimental data for the target compound 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) and supporting studies for its closest read across substance with structurally and functionally similar with the target chemical were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

In the first key experimental studies for the target chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzene-sulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) (from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2000) degradation was measured. Determination of percentage degradation of chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide by using parameter BOD. The test were performed with activated sludge from the primary aeration tank at a pilot scale activated sludge sewage treatment plant receiving municipal wastewater (Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lyngby, Denmark). Preconditioning of the sludge began within 1 h of collection. Preconditioning (aeration) took 20 to 24 h at room temperature. Actual test was performed in the Screening tests were performed according to the guidelines in ISO 9408. The tests were performed in Oxytopt respirometers for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand. Sodium acetate was used as a readily biodegradable reference compound. All compounds were tested in duplicates at concentrations corresponding to theoretical oxygen Demands of 40 mg/L. After the exposure of chemical with the activated sludge, no degradation was observed in the 28 days by using the parameter BOD.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS no. 16803 -97 -7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

Similarly in the second experimental studies for the target chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzene-sulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) (from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2000) degradation was measured. Determination of percentage degradation of chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide by using parameter % degradation. The test were performed with activated sludge from the primary aeration tank at a pilot scale activated sludge sewage treatment plant receiving municipal wastewater (Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lyngby, Denmark). Preconditioning of the sludge began within 1 h of collection. Preconditioning (aeration) took 20 to 24 h at room temperature. As the bacteria was sensitive to the chemical in the first exposure, thus various exposure was provide to the bacteria so that bacteria becomes adapted to the chemical and become resistance for the chemical. In the second series of experiment adapted activated sludge expose to the chemical, chemical degradation was observed. Bacteria during the lag period has acquired general properties needed for degradation of several sulfonamides. After the exposure of chemical with the adapted activated sludge, it degrade the chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide 50% in 0.3 days. Thus the % degradation was 0.3 days which indicates that the chemical was readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, HSDB, 2017 and EnviChem, 2014) for the read across chemical 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (CAS no. 101-77-9), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (CAS no. 101-77-9). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) under aerobic conditions. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of read across substance 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane was determined to be 0 and 5% by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4, 4’- diaminodiphenylmethane is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1,4-diaminobenzene (CAS no. 106-50-3) (J-CHECK, 2017). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 1,4 -diamino benzene was determined to be 5% by BOD parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1,4-diaminobenzene is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

As in the third study adapted activated sludge was used in the study thus bacteria become resistant and degrade the chemical, but without adaptation bacteria does not degrade chemical. Thus On the basis of above results for target chemical 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No. 16803-97-7) (from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2000 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance authoritative from database J-CHECK, HSDB, 2017 and EnviChem, 2014, it can be concluded that the test substance 4-amino-N-(4aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound  4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide (CAS No16803 -97 -7). If released in to the environment,12.7% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in water is estimated to be 37.5days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.321 %), indicates that 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl) benzenesulphonamide is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide (CAS No.16803 -97 -7) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 87 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4-amino-N-(4-aminophenyl)benzenesulphonamide, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low.